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Genetic analysis of Ancient Italy

Author: Maciamo Hay (last update : March 2021)

Map of Iron Age Italy



Dodecad K12b admixtures of ancient Italy

The 11 Iron Age samples from ancient Italy below were tested by Antonio et al. (2019).

Sample ID Gedrosia Siberia NW Africa SE Asia Atlantic Med North Europe South Asia East Africa SW Asia East Asia Caucasus Sub-Saharan Africa
R1 (PV) 5.02 1.78 1.33 0.00 35.08 26.46 0.00 0.00 5.43 0.00 24.50 0.4
R1015 (V) 1.56 0.19 2.85 0.00 47.15 21.66 0.00 0.00 5.46 0.00 20.85 0.00
R435 (L) 4.84 0.64 0.65 0.00 47.12 28.54 0.15 0.00 4.13 0.00 13.40 0.53
R851 (L) 1.59 0.00 1.39 0.00 49.28 24.97 0.00 0.14 1.93 0.00 20.26 0.45
R1016 (L) 3.86 0.98 1.53 0.19 47.23 20.37 1.43 0.00 3.31 0.00 21.10 0.00
R1021 (L) 2.11 0.00 1.96 0.6 47.70 24.04 0.00 0.00 1.33 0.00 22.26 0.00
R473 (E) 1.00 0.00 0.68 0.15 47.26 22.79 0.00 0.21 7.39 0.21 20.17 0.34
R474 (E) 7.18 0.17 2.38 0.00 39.08 25.74 0.00 0.00 5.98 0.00 18.84 0.66
R475 (E) 0.00 0.00 13.01 0.00 38.12 12.14 0.37 1.98 11.26 0.00 22.70 0.42
R437 (G) 6.45 0.00 3.03 0.00 33.19 11.94 0.00 0.00 11.63 0.00 33.74 0.02
R850 (G) 7.30 0.00 4.52 1.00 21.26 10.54 0.00 0.43 14.77 0.00 40.10 0.00
Villanovan Modal 3.29 0.99 2.09 0.00 41.12 24.06 0.00 0.00 5.45 0.00 22.68 0.20
Latin Modal 3.10 0.41 1.38 0.20 47.83 24.48 0.40 0.04 2.68 0.00 19.26 0.25
Etruscan Modal 2.73 0.06 5.36 0.05 41.49 20.22 0.12 0.73 8.21 0.07 20.57 0.47
Greek Modal 6.88 0.00 3.78 0.50 27.23 11.24 0.00 0.22 13.20 0.00 36.92 0.01

Archeological information about the samples

Sample ID Location Date (BCE) Ethnicity Y-DNA
R1 Martinsicuro 930-839 Protovillanovan -
R1015 Veio Grotta Gramiccia 900-800 Villanovan -
R435 Palestrina Colombella 600-200 Latin R1b-CTS6389 (Z71)
R851 Ardea 800-500 Latin R1b-FGC29470 (L2)
R1016 Castel di Decima 900-700 Latin R1b-Z2103
R1021 Boville Ernica 700-600 Latin R1b-Z2118 (L51)
R473 Civitavecchia 700-600 Etruscan -
R474 Civitavecchia 700-600 Etruscan J2b2a-CTS6190
R475 Civitavecchia 700-600 Etruscan -
R437 Palestrina Selicata 400-200 Greek R1b-PR3565 (L2)
R850 Ardea 800-500 Greek T1a

Comparison with modern populations

Using the Latin, Etruscan and Italian Greek modal admixtures above and comparing them with the Dodecad K12b averages for modern populations on Vahaduo, here are the list of the most similar modern populations .

Latin Modal

  • Spaniards from the Baleares : 7.3
  • Spaniards from Valencia : 7.6
  • Spaniards from Catalonia : 7.6
  • Spaniards from Aragon : 8.0
  • Spaniards from Castilla & Leon : 8.0
  • Spaniards from Cantabria 8.4
  • Spaniards from Andalusia : 8.8
  • Swiss Italians : 9.6
  • Spaniards from Galicia : 9.7
  • Italians from Lombardy : 9.8
  • Italians from Aosta_Valley : 9.9
  • Spaniards from La_Rioja : 9.9

Etruscan Modal

  • Spaniards from the Baleares : 7.3
  • Italians from Lombardy : 7.4
  • Spaniards from Castille-Leon : 7.7
  • Spaniards from Valencia : 7.8
  • Swiss Italians : 8.1
  • Spaniards from Catalonia : 8.7
  • Portuguese : 8.8
  • Italians from Liguria : 9.0
  • Italians from Piedmont : 9.1
  • Spaniards from Andalusia : 9.1
  • Spaniards from Aragon : 9.5
  • Italians from Aosta Valley : 9.7

Italian Greek Modal

  • Italians from Calabria : 1.7
  • Ashkenazi Jews : 3.9
  • Italians from Campania : 4.2
  • Greeks from Fournoi : 4.6
  • Italians from Sicily : 4.7
  • Italian Jews : 5.2
  • Greeks from Icaria : 5.4
  • Greeks from Crete 5.6
  • Greeks from Kos : 5.7
  • Greeks from Izmir : 5.8
  • Greeks from Rhodes : 6.2
  • Sephardic Jews : 6.7
  • Italians from Abruzzo : 7.2
  • Italians from Apulia : 7.4
  • Greeks from Lemnos : 7.6
  • Greeks from Foca : 8.6

Another way to go, instead of comparing ancient averages with modern averages, is to look at the closest individual matches between modern people and ancient Italians. This analysis was done using MyTrueAncestry.com to compare the genomes of the ancient Belgae with those of modern Europeans. The only modern match for ancient Latins with modern people with genetic distance lower than 10 was for Central Italians (GD = 8.9). The closest matches to ancient Greeks from Italy are from Greeks and South Italians. Unlike Dodecad K12b where modern Iberians were ancient Latins, in MyTrueAncestry they appear closer to the Etruscans.

Closest modern matches to ancient Etruscan individuals

  • Andalusians : 4.0
  • Galicians : 4.6
  • Portuguese : 4.8

Follow-up

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