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Genetic analysis of Ancient Britain

Author: Maciamo Hay (last update : March 2021)

Contents

Dodecad K12b admixtures of ancient British

Several studies have looked into ancient British DNA. Brace et al. (2019) tested the genomes of 6 Mesolithic and 67 Neolithic individuals found in Britain, dating 85002500 BCE. Olalde et al. (2018) tested 27 Bell Beaker and 55 Bronze Age individuals from the British Isles.

Note: You can check the location, carbon dating and haplogroups of any sample in the AmtDB database.


Neolithic Britons

Sample ID Gedrosia Siberia NW Africa SE Asia Atlantic Med North Europe South Asia East Africa SW Asia East Asia Caucasus Sub-Saharan Africa
I2605 0 0 3.36 0.38 66.07 12.15 0.56 0 6.73 0 10 0.74
I2630 0 0 4.13 0 66.89 9.03 0 0.09 7.45 0.32 12.01 0.09
I2631 0 0 5.05 0.00 65.99 13.28 0.00 0.00 5.75 0.00 9.47 0.46
I2633 0 0 4.55 0.13 64.48 14.07 0.2 0.29 7.32 0.11 8.44 0.42
I2634 0 0 6.63 1.42 60.56 11.65 0 0.21 7.56 0 11.96 0
I2635 0 0 5.08 0 63.3 10.42 0 0 7.31 0.94 12.53 0.42
I2636 0.00 0.00 4.36 0.41 65.99 10.89 0.00 0.00 6.85 0.42 10.89 0.2
I2637 0.00 0.00 3.17 0.00 65.44 11.19 0.00 0.00 6.21 0.30 13.22 0.47
I2650 0 0 3.6 0 64.85 15.06 0 0.23 9.39 0 6.75 0.13
I2651 0 0 5.28 0 67.31 13.08 0 0 5.34 0.15 8.63 0.2
I2657 0 0 3.84 0 65.61 18.75 0.32 0 3.85 0 7.63 0
I2659 0 0 4.98 0 65.79 15.78 0 0 7.85 0 5.31 0.28
I2660 0 0 4.32 0.00 68.75 14.77 0.00 0.00 4.52 0.27 7.04 0.32
I2691 0.00 0.00 5.04 0.34 65.83 23.08 0.00 0.06 3.58 0.52 1.54 0.02
I2932 0 0 2.95 0.00 65.62 15.14 0.00 0.09 6.12 0.44 9.38 0.26
I2933 0 0 3.3 0.4 66.45 15.78 0.28 0.26 8.81 0.49 3.98 0.24
I2934 0 0 5.09 0.58 64.14 13.86 0.00 0.00 6.81 0.00 9.19 0.32
I2935 0 0 5.91 0 65.55 11.56 0 0 7.61 0 9.38 0
I2977 0 0 3.13 0 67.51 12.21 0 0 7.31 0.22 9.22 0.39
I2978 0 0 3.99 0.13 67.17 11.95 0 0 7.06 0 9.39 0.31
I2979 0 0 4.36 0.21 66.98 10.95 0.1 0.26 6.65 0.11 10.17 0.22
I2980 0 0.04 6.13 0.31 64.38 11.27 0 0 6.77 0 10.55 0.56
I2988 0 0 3.88 0.45 64.68 9.42 0.16 0 8.77 0.13 12.34 0.17
I3068 0.00 0.00 5.03 0.00 65.04 11.36 0.00 0.00 7.25 0.84 10.48 0.00
I3085 0 0 5.87 0.28 64.09 10.50 0.00 0.10 8.06 0.00 10.89 0.22
I3133 0 0.05 3.55 0.08 64.03 14.6 0 0.14 7.11 0 10.34 0.1
I3134 0 0 3.62 0.00 68.98 13.24 0.00 0.00 6.68 0.20 6.98 0.31
I3135 0 0 3.51 0 65.88 26.23 0.42 0.4 2.61 0 0.54 0.41
I3136 0 0 3.67 0 65.93 12.38 0 0 8.39 0.01 9.63 0
I3138 0.00 0.00 2.26 0.30 64.61 12.25 0.00 0.00 9.97 0.48 9.55 0.57
I4949 0 0 5.74 0 71.4 19.3 0 2.12 1.44 0 0 0
I5358 0.00 0.00 6.75 0.00 64.19 10.60 0.34 0.00 7.57 0.53 9.45 0.58
I5366 0 0 4.18 1.27 66.45 9.92 0.12 0.00 7.05 0.00 10.49 0.52
I7554 0.00 0.07 4.79 0.00 64.94 10.80 0.00 0.00 8.84 0.06 10.35 0.15
SB338B2 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.35 68.92 11.72 0.00 0.00 8.43 0.16 6.97 0.12
SB350C3 0.00 0.00 2.88 0.02 69.55 10.32 0.00 0.00 8.51 0.00 8.44 0.28
SB379D2 0.00 0.00 5.00 0.00 65.03 11.32 0.00 0.00 7.28 0.81 10.56 0.00
SB381B3 0.00 0.00 3.29 0.00 66.11 11.35 0.00 0.00 8.85 0.00 10.16 0.23
SB415A 0.00 0.00 0.34 0.00 56.65 20.82 0.01 0.18 9.83 0.00 12.08 0.09
SB416B3 0.00 0.00 5.09 0.06 68.19 9.29 0.27 0.00 5.40 0.00 11.70 0.00
SB422B2 0.00 0.00 3.11 0.00 65.23 14.83 0.00 0.00 9.99 0.00 6.85 0.00
SB451B 0.00 0.00 4.48 0.00 66.93 11.60 0.00 0.00 6.75 0.00 10.23 0.00
SB462A2 0.00 0.00 2.95 0.62 72.32 12.33 0.75 0.00 3.62 0.00 7.42 0.00
SB467A 0.00 2.70 0.00 0.00 56.53 21.21 0.00 0.00 9.46 0.00 10.10 0.00
SB470A3 0.00 0.00 2.38 0.10 66.84 11.44 0.00 0.00 7.47 0.04 11.23 0.51
SB474C3 0.00 0.00 5.58 0.93 66.38 13.23 0.05 0.00 5.78 0.00 8.05 0.00
SB488B3 0.00 0.00 4.44 0.00 65.28 11.63 0.00 0.00 8.39 0.00 10.26 0.00
SB492A3 0.00 0.00 5.75 0.00 67.98 11.98 0.00 0.00 6.55 0.45 7.19 0.10
SB493A2 0.00 0.00 2.77 0.68 67.93 9.36 0.41 0.00 4.38 2.37 12.10 0.00
SB495A2 0.00 1.72 4.53 0.90 70.33 7.30 0.00 0.00 9.21 0.00 5.70 0.30
SB511A3 0.00 0.00 4.84 0.00 66.65 13.24 0.00 0.00 5.73 0.12 8.89 0.53
SB513A2 0.00 0.00 3.79 0.00 67.27 20.61 0.15 0.00 5.19 0.10 1.77 1.11
SB515A2 0.00 0.00 1.95 0.00 65.08 13.32 0.00 0.00 10.53 0.46 8.66 0.00
SB519A2 0.00 0.00 4.29 0.40 62.99 12.40 0.00 0.00 8.20 0.00 10.60 1.11
SB527A 0.00 0.00 2.84 0.00 65.45 15.00 0.00 0.00 13.35 0.00 3.36 0.00
SB528A 0.00 0.00 3.58 1.73 68.57 16.86 0.00 0.00 5.52 0.00 3.73 0.00
SB543A3 0.00 0.00 2.97 0.24 64.61 13.89 0.00 0.00 8.51 0.43 9.36 0.00
SB568A 0.00 0.00 6.87 0.00 66.41 13.13 0.00 0.00 4.13 0.00 8.52 0.94
SB570A 0.00 0.00 6.33 0.00 64.48 10.88 0.61 0.00 7.58 0.54 9.02 0.56
SB573A 0.00 0.00 3.67 0.00 66.91 9.93 0.00 0.00 7.04 0.39 12.05 0.00
SB577A 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.49 67.40 15.12 0.09 0.00 8.90 0.00 5.00 0.00
SB603A 0.00 0.00 4.18 1.09 66.73 9.64 0.40 0.00 6.73 0.00 10.74 0.50
Neolithic Britain 0.00 0.07 4.07 0.28 65.93 13.23 0.08 0.07 7.13 0.20 8.68 0.25

Bell Beaker Britons (2300-2000 BCE)

Sample ID Gedrosia Siberia NW Africa SE Asia Atlantic Med North Europe South Asia East Africa SW Asia East Asia Caucasus Sub-Saharan Africa
I1765 14.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 31.55 48.56 0.16 0.90 0.00 0.00 4.21 0.00
I1767 9.62 0.10 0.00 0.29 37.24 44.10 0.28 0.43 1.08 0.00 6.50 0.35
I2416 4.42 2.18 0.00 0.00 48.88 37.29 0.00 1.35 1.66 0.40 3.82 0.00
I2418 12.40 0.63 0.00 0.00 33.29 49.36 1.61 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.77 0.93
I2443 14.10 1.90 0.00 0.00 30.56 47.79 0.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.41 1.46
I2445 10.27 1.51 0.00 0.24 34.19 47.37 1.83 0.14 1.25 0.00 2.48 0.72
I2446 9.93 0.38 0.00 0.00 44.94 41.80 2.64 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.31
I2447 13.42 0.72 0.00 0.11 33.57 47.63 1.01 0.86 0.00 1.08 0.56 1.04
I2450 14.73 0.85 0.00 0.00 29.03 51.60 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.89 0.91
I2452 11.28 0.65 0.00 0.00 33.45 50.01 0.98 0.38 0.00 0.00 2.50 0.76
I2453 13.29 1.05 0.08 0.00 31.04 46.94 0.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.00 0.67
I2454 15.52 0.20 0.00 0.00 31.12 49.93 1.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.62 0.59
I2455 9.42 0.00 0.00 0.00 33.34 50.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.99 0.00
I2459 15.12 1.01 1.31 0.00 27.69 52.42 0.00 0.93 0.00 0.86 0.00 0.66
I2566 10.46 2.85 1.35 0.00 35.36 46.44 0.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.03 1.77
I2568 9.42 0.00 0.58 0.00 40.38 43.74 1.35 0.24 1.59 0.88 1.36 0.46
I2598 14.24 0.00 0.00 1.00 30.29 49.29 2.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.25 0.00
I3255 14.61 0.76 0.00 0.00 34.94 46.64 0.47 0.87 0.00 0.00 1.09 0.61
I3256 13.59 0.00 0.03 0.00 35.75 46.00 2.95 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.43 1.24
I5367 11.80 0.64 0.00 0.00 35.53 49.25 0.27 0.17 0.00 0.00 1.67 0.67
I5376 16.92 0.00 0.00 0.69 27.08 50.89 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.95 0.47
I5379 10.52 1.35 0.01 0.42 36.20 43.00 0.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.58 1.60
I5382 12.52 0.00 0.00 0.00 35.52 46.49 0.40 0.09 0.00 1.25 2.53 1.20
I5385 14.11 1.50 0.00 0.00 30.25 48.45 0.20 0.40 0.00 0.28 4.39 0.42
I5471 13.13 0.84 0.59 0.74 37.91 41.93 0.00 0.81 0.00 0.00 3.69 0.37
I6679 13.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 32.51 47.90 0.00 1.47 2.80 0.00 2.24 0.00
I6774 16.81 0.83 0.00 0.00 29.06 49.76 0.75 0.87 0.00 0.00 1.49 0.44
BB Britain 12.57 0.74 0.15 0.13 34.10 47.22 0.84 0.37 0.31 0.18 2.76 0.65

Early Bronze Age Britons (2200-1600 BCE)

Sample ID Gedrosia Siberia NW Africa SE Asia Atlantic Med North Europe South Asia East Africa SW Asia East Asia Caucasus Sub-Saharan Africa
I2601 11.76 0 0.07 0 37.07 46.89 0.54 0 0 0 2.02 1.66
I2602 12.32 0.37 1.12 0.59 37.52 45.24 0.3 0.16 0 0.47 0.02 1.89
I2604 13.28 2.01 0.00 0.00 28.82 48.62 0.99 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.01 1.26
I2609 13.80 0.00 2.10 0.00 30.77 46.91 1.91 0.15 0.00 0.07 4.30 0.00
I2610 16.43 0.28 0 0 31.91 48.61 0 0 1.18 0 1.08 0.52
I2612 5.27 1.42 3.19 3.76 25.43 54.93 1.38 4.33 0.29 0.00 0.00 0.00
I2618 13.2 0.12 0.00 0 35.97 48.28 1.2 0.01 0.26 0 0 0.95
I2981 11.38 0.98 0.76 0.00 36.76 45.11 0.82 0.01 1.71 0.00 1.02 1.45
I3132 12.13 2.01 0 0 34.18 44.97 0 0 0 0 5.14 1.57
I5373 12.96 0 0 3.45 31.05 50.32 0 0 0 0 1.46 0.77
I5377 13.24 0 0 0.96 35.86 43.93 0.87 0.03 0 0 4.19 0.92
I5441 15.68 1.36 0.00 0.00 32.89 44.81 0.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.26 1.18
I5515 13.77 0.82 0 0 32.86 46.8 0 0 0.15 0.85 1.75 2.99
I5516 12.37 0.19 0 0 36.8 45.16 3 0 0.81 0 0 1.67
I6680 11.59 1.46 0.64 0.00 35.22 40.72 0.78 0.00 0.13 0.00 8.03 1.41
I7635 11.13 1.14 0.32 0.08 34.58 48.42 0.99 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.14 0.21
I7638 9.96 0.41 0.04 0.00 30.83 48.60 0.58 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.41 1.16
I7639 12.44 0 0 0 32.55 40.75 0 0 0 0 14.27 0
EBA Britain 11.99 0.65 0.40 0.43 34.02 46.75 0.72 0.21 0.28 0.08 3.35 1.11

Middle to Late Bronze Age Britons (1500-800 BCE)

Sample ID Gedrosia Siberia NW Africa SE Asia Atlantic Med North Europe South Asia East Africa SW Asia East Asia Caucasus Sub-Saharan Africa
I2458 10.35 0.67 0.00 0.00 40.22 40.80 1.74 0.00 0.32 0.00 4.84 1.06
I2573 9.17 1.40 0.00 0.00 37.25 42.64 0.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.85 1.00
I2574 16.36 0.00 1.50 0.00 36.31 39.90 1.70 0.00 0.00 0.23 4.00 0.00
I2639 10.18 0.88 0.86 0 31.15 48.9 1.42 0 0 0 5.89 0.73
I2655 9.88 0.61 0 0.39 37.2 45.77 0.76 0 0.29 0 4.27 0.82
I2656 14.41 0.27 0.15 0.33 36.45 41.99 0.72 0 0 0.03 5.39 0.26
I2659 0 0 4.98 0 65.79 15.78 0 0 7.85 0 5.31 0.28
I2660 0 0 4.32 0 68.75 14.77 0 0 4.52 0.27 7.04 0.32
I2691 0.00 0.00 5.04 0.34 65.83 23.08 0.00 0.06 3.58 0.52 1.54 0.02
I3082 9.37 0.09 0.4 0.65 39.07 40.87 2.98 0 0.33 0 5.28 0.97
I3130 11.91 1.17 0.45 0 38.59 43.83 1.12 0 0 0 2.1 0.83
I7569 7.15 0 0 0 28.9 44.47 2.05 0 0 0 17.43 0
I7570 10.32 1 0.00 0.00 32.35 47.90 1.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.64 1.42
I7571 13.03 1.41 0 0.46 36.87 47.54 0 0.12 0 0 0 0.57
I7572 12.02 0.47 0.99 0.00 37.71 45.30 0.00 0.58 0.54 0.37 1.55 0.47
I7573 10.25 0.65 0.00 0.00 36.99 46.07 0.24 1.14 0.00 0.00 3.79 0.87
I7574 11.67 0.71 0.00 0.00 35.48 48.47 1.47 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.70 0.51
I7575 11.14 0.17 0 0.96 38.45 44.75 0.81 0.00 0.46 0.00 2.11 1.15
I7576 9.15 0.25 0.00 1.48 40.6 41.8 0.64 0 0.15 0 4.62 1.3
I7577 12.14 0.37 0 0 36.55 43.8 1.65 0.7 0 0 4.1 0.69
I7578 12.59 1.12 0.62 0.00 36.34 45.96 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.68 1.57
I7579 10.8 0.94 0 0 33.34 47.12 1.84 0.34 0 0 4.55 1.07
I7580 11.97 1.29 0.00 0.00 33.35 47.17 0.32 0.04 0.00 0.00 4.82 1.05
I7626 10.47 0.58 0 0 35.92 48.01 0 0.06 0 0.33 3.03 1.6
I7627 11.83 0.29 0.00 0.00 38.70 45.39 1.22 0.00 0.07 0.00 1.63 0.86
I7628 10.35 0 0.97 0 35.46 44.54 1.37 0.46 0 0 6.4 0.45
I7640 14.12 0.87 0 0 35.17 46.23 0.92 0 0 0 2.25 0.43
MLBA Britain 10.02 0.56 0.75 0.17 39.58 41.96 0.93 0.13 0.67 0.06 4.40 0.75

Anglo-Saxons & Vikings

=> See Genetic analysis of Medieval Germanic tribes


Comparison with modern populations

Using the average values for each era above and comparing it with the Dodecad K12b averages for modern populations on Vahaduo, the genetic distance between populations can be compared. The smaller the value for the genetic distance, the most similar the population (1 being a perfect match). Under 5 is considered very close, 5 to 10 moderately similar, while over 10 is not genetically similar. Neolithic Britons were not genetically close to any modern population, but the most similar were modern Spaniards. The Bell Beakers from Central Europe almost completely replaced the Neolithic population. They were the ancestors of both Celtic and Germanic peoples so it is not surprising to find relatively close matches in Scandinavia and Celtic populations like Scotland and Ireland. The best match are Icelanders, who are about 2/3 Scandinavian and 1/3 Irish/Scottish in origins. The Atlantic Bronze Age (1300700 BCE) saw population exchanges between Britain, Ireland, western France, Spain and Portugal, so that the percentage of Atlantic_Med increases again. The Late Bronze Age Britons were already genetically the same ethnic Celts as modern Irish, Scots and Bretons and contributed a lot to the modern English gene pool as well.

Neolithic British

  • Spaniards from Aragon : 14.3
  • Spanish Basques : 15.2
  • Spaniards from Castille-La Mancha : 15.3
  • Spaniards from Valencia : 15.5
  • Spaniards from Cantabria : 15.9
  • French Basques : 16.2
  • Spaniards from Andalucia : 17.1
  • Spaniards from Murcia : 17.8
  • Spaniards from Castille & Leon : 18.1
  • Sardinians : 19.9

Bell Beaker British

  • Icelanders : 4.5
  • Danes : 6.1
  • Irish : 6.1
  • Scots : 6.6
  • Swedes : 6.7
  • Northwest Germans : 6.8
  • North English : 7.4
  • South English : 8.4
  • Dutch : 8.7
  • Germans : 8.8
  • Northwest French : 9.0
  • Norwegians : 9.3

Early Bronze Age British

  • Icelanders : 4.1
  • Danes : 5.8
  • Irish : 6.1
  • Northwest Germans : 6.1
  • Scots : 6.1
  • Swedes : 6.4
  • North English : 6.8
  • South English : 7.7
  • Dutch : 7.9
  • Germans : 8.1
  • Northwest French : 8.4
  • Orkney Islanders : 8.6

Middle/Late Bronze Age British

  • Scots : 3.1
  • Irish : 3.1
  • Northwest French : 3.3
  • North English : 3.7
  • South English : 3.8
  • Icelanders : 6.9
  • Orkney Islanders : 6.9
  • Dutch : 7.4
  • Northwest Germans : 7.7
  • Belgians : 8.0
  • North French : 8.2
  • Danes : 8.9
  • Northeast French : 9.3

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