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Genetic analysis of Early Medieval Germanic tribes

Author: Maciamo Hay (last update : March 2021)

Map of Germania in the Late Antiquity
Contents




Dodecad K12b admixtures of 6th-century Lombards

The 28 Lombard samples below were tested by Amorim et al. (2018). All are from the late 6th century. The samples with an ID staring CL are from Collegno in Piedmont, Italy. Those starting with SZ are from Szólád, Hungary. Only Germanic individuals were selected among the 63 samples tested. You can find the list of Y-DNA and mtDNA corresponding to each sample here.

Note: You can check the location, carbon dating and haplogroups of any sample in the AmtDB database.

Sample ID Gedrosia Siberia NW Africa SE Asia Atlantic Med North Europe South Asia East Africa SW Asia East Asia Caucasus Sub-Saharan Africa
CL145 9.92 0 0 0 35.06 49.04 0.52 0.75 0 0 4.33 0.39
CL146 8.32 0.08 0.30 0.00 34.97 50.00 0.80 1.15 0.00 0.00 4.34 0.00
CL151 10.25 0 0.53 0 34.86 50.1 1.09 0.35 0 0 2.4 0.42
CL63 8.17 0.00 2.12 0.16 33.38 37.08 0.00 0.00 2.38 0.00 16.59 0.12
CL83 9.14 0.28 0.58 0.26 37.97 45.11 0 0 2.42 0 4.15 0.08
CL84 6.57 0.50 0.00 0.00 38.31 47.28 0.00 0.00 2.16 0.00 5.18 0.00
CL87 8.15 0.44 0.00 0.00 39.39 42.27 0.00 0.00 3.19 0.00 6.06 0.45
CL92 8.70 2.44 1.56 0.00 36.85 47.01 0.00 0.41 0.00 0.00 3.03 0.00
CL93 9.85 0.24 0.00 0.00 36.11 48.86 0.00 1.22 0.00 0.00 3.65 0.06
CL97 6.63 2.2 1.34 2.6 31.69 41.34 0 0.73 0.94 0 12.51 0
SZ11 8.79 0.12 0 0 33.57 46.48 0 0 0.2 0.11 10.04 0.69
SZ12 7.64 0.00 0.24 0.00 34.09 46.15 0.91 0.26 0.20 0.00 10.51 0.00
SZ13 8.10 0.00 0.32 0.00 33.18 49.56 0.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.46 0.13
SZ14 10.42 0.00 0.00 0.52 34.98 41.73 0.00 0.00 3.23 0.00 8.38 0.74
SZ15 9.16 1.46 0.00 0.53 34.40 45.48 0.81 0.00 0.88 0.00 6.81 0.47
SZ16 10.65 0.98 0.13 0.00 35.89 50.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.51 0.16
SZ2 9.36 0 0 0 33.46 53.49 0 0 0 0 2.37 1.43
SZ22 8.26 0 0 0 33.38 48.32 1.44 0 0 0.63 7.28 0.68
SZ23 8.82 0.69 0.00 0.00 35.39 42.07 0.00 0.00 1.83 0.00 10.75 0.45
SZ24 6.45 0.17 0 0.72 33.63 45.85 0.65 0 2.28 0.09 9.68 0.48
SZ3 7.98 0.16 0.00 0.00 38.82 39.19 0.00 0.78 2.62 0.00 10.43 0.00
SZ30 9.81 0 1.07 0 33.04 44.28 0.99 0 0 0.62 9.39 0.8
SZ4 7.85 0.87 0.30 0.00 33.91 50.04 0.43 0.00 0.75 0.00 5.34 0.51
SZ41 3.73 0 0 0 33.87 52.79 0.26 0 0.87 0.11 6.59 1.76
SZ42 8.55 0 0 0 33.3 45.35 0 0 1.67 0 10.51 0.62
SZ7 8.27 0.00 0.00 0.00 34.72 47.14 0.51 0.32 1.78 0.00 6.96 0.29
SZ8 5.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 36.87 40.78 0.00 0.00 2.12 0.00 13.85 0.65
SZ9 9.39 0 0 0 35.66 51.13 1.01 0.43 0 0 2.09 0.25
Lombard Modal 8.38 0.38 0.30 0.17 35.03 46.38 0.35 0.23 1.05 0.06 7.26 0.42

Dodecad K12b admixtures of Alemmani (Suebi) and Ostrogoths

Veeramah et al. (2018) tested the DNA of 41 skeletons from Early Medieval Bavaria dating from around 500 CE (460-560 CE). Southern Germany was occupied at the time by the Alemmani, also known as the Suebi. Some of them had crossed the Rhine in 409 and established a Kingdom of the Suebi (409–585) in Northwest Iberia. One extra Alemmanic individual (R31) buried in the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome and tested by Antonio et al. (2019) was also added.

Three graves from Straubing in Bavaria (STR_220, STR_266, STR_328) were culturally Ostrogothic and were genetically different, closer to modern Austria, Hungary and Croatia. They have been classified separately. The Ostrogothic samples possessed over 5% of Mongoloid (Siberian, East Asian, SE Asian) DNA, which most probably came from intermixing with the Huns.

Alemannic/Suebi genomes

Sample ID Gedrosia Siberia NW Africa SE Asia Atlantic Med North Europe South Asia East Africa SW Asia East Asia Caucasus Sub-Saharan Africa
AED_106 10.93 0.44 0.96 0 34.16 49.09 0 0 0 0 3.16 1.27
AED_1119 5.5 0.88 0.28 2.51 29.78 52.01 0 2.25 0 0 6.79 0
AED_1135 9.54 0.72 0 0 27.14 38.34 1.79 0.21 4.52 0 15.33 2.42
AED_204 9.62 0 2.84 0 37.3 49.47 0 0 0 0 0 0.77
AED_249 8.71 0.00 0.00 0.00 34.77 49.08 0.00 1.41 0.00 0.57 4.21 1.25
AED_432 11.61 0 0 0 39.31 42.12 0.67 0 2.54 2.79 0.15 0.8
AED_92 9.93 0.59 1.65 0.00 35.02 49.19 1.40 0.42 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.8
ALH_10 6.54 0.37 0 1.14 35.97 45.88 0 0.04 1.1 0.63 5.38 2.95
ALH_2 12.33 0 0 1.1 36.85 39.86 0 0.52 1.43 0 7.91 0
NW_255 5.58 1.95 0 0 37.4 45.43 0 0 2.81 0 4.01 2.82
R31 5.84 0.94 0.78 0 36.7 45.57 0 0 1.73 0 8.17 0.27
STR_241 12.24 3.73 2.34 0 30.71 49.84 0 0 0 0 1.15 0
STR_248 15.18 0.83 0 0 32.15 38.4 0 0 4.12 1.62 7.21 0.48
STR_316 8.14 0.08 2.02 1.05 40.18 46.24 0 1.22 0 0.73 0.23 0.13
STR_355 8.41 0.11 0 0.92 38.29 46.63 0 0 1.38 0 2.56 1.71
STR_360 6.03 0 2.53 0 26.13 58.89 0 0 0 0 6.43 0
STR_393 9.85 1.29 0.00 0.00 23.22 51.91 0.00 0.00 3.06 0.00 8.02 2.64
STR_480 4.69 0.00 2.75 0.00 34.05 47.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.59 1.55
STR_486 6.61 0.42 2.37 0.00 32.03 44.36 0.14 0.12 1.32 1.61 10.75 0.27
STR_491 7.17 0.17 0.00 0.00 37.39 50.55 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.71
Alemmanic Modal 8.36 0.62 0.93 0.34 32.06 44.48 0.20 0.31 1.20 0.40 5.05 1.06

Ostrogothic genomes

Sample ID Gedrosia Siberia NW Africa SE Asia Atlantic Med North Europe South Asia East Africa SW Asia East Asia Caucasus Sub-Saharan Africa
STR_220 8.91 0.00 0.00 0.00 30.45 45.94 0.52 0.28 0.00 0.00 12.35 1.54
STR_266 6.86 2.16 4.37 0.00 34.64 38.12 1.04 0.00 1.15 0.00 10.84 0.83
STR_328 7.98 5.38 1.09 3.84 22.83 33.36 0.63 0 1.42 5.2 17.03 1.25
Ostrogothic Modal 7.92 2.51 1.82 1.28 29.31 39.14 0.73 0.09 0.86 1.73 13.41 1.21

Dodecad K12b admixtures of Anglo-Saxons

Schiffels et al. (2016) tested the DNA of 10 Iron Age Celtic and Anglo-Saxon skeletons found around Cambridge. Here are the admixtures of two Anglo-Saxons from the 8th century. They are closest to modern Scandinavians.

Anglo-Saxon genomes

Sample ID Gedrosia Siberia NW Africa SE Asia Atlantic Med North Europe South Asia East Africa SW Asia East Asia Caucasus Sub-Saharan Africa
ERS389796 10.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 36.38 50.79 0.21 0.82 0.00 0.46 0.43 0.55
ERS389799 11.04 0.39 1.28 0.00 37.95 47.82 0.00 0.00 0.94 0.00 0.00 0.59
ERS389797 13.82 0 0.35 0.72 38.93 41.03 0.51 0 0 0 3.9 0.74
Anglo-Saxon 11.74 0.13 0.54 0.24 37.75 46.55 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.15 1.44 0.63

Dodecad K12b admixtures of Vikings

Krzewinska et al. (2018) tested the DNA of 23 individuals from the 10th to 12th century Swedish town of Sigtuna. Despite their relatively high genetic diversity reported by the authors, the closest modern population is modern Sweden.

Swedish Viking genomes

Sample ID Gedrosia Siberia NW Africa SE Asia Atlantic Med North Europe South Asia East Africa SW Asia East Asia Caucasus Sub-Saharan Africa
2072 3.04 0.00 4.72 4.28 19.03 66.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.67
84001 6.89 1.42 0.83 0.41 33.37 50.53 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.40 3.08 3.06
84005 5.44 0.75 0.46 1.13 26.1 58.18 1.65 0 2.34 0 2.13 1.82
84035 7.41 2.36 0 0 32.78 46.42 2.82 0 2.47 0 5.13 0.62
97002 8.35 0 0 0 30.82 44.64 0 2.78 0 2.55 10.66 0.22
97026 4.44 1.68 0 1.21 33.29 47.72 0 0 0 0 10.01 1.65
97029 7.96 2.39 0 1.6 35.05 49.29 0 1.84 0 0 1.03 0.84
bns023 13.9 0 0 0.00 45.45 23.47 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.56 12.26 1.37
grt035 7.88 0.67 1.24 0.27 40.98 45.48 0.1 0.95 0 0 2.16 0.26
grt036 6.86 0.27 0 0.88 30.92 51.42 0.55 0.39 0.7 0 6.36 1.65
gtm021 4.76 0.00 0.00 1.49 29.30 53.64 0.00 0.00 0.71 0.78 6.76 2.57
gtm127 6.03 0.69 1.8 1.82 43.75 42.39 0 0 0 0 3.51 0
KAL006 4.13 4.31 0.00 0.21 17.24 67.71 1.68 0.62 0 0 3.32 0.78
kal009 0 0 0 0 16.54 74.03 2.91 0 0.24 0 6.28 0
kls001 12.63 0 0 0 35.55 45.7 0 0 0 1.6 2.62 1.89
nuf002 10.38 0.78 0.00 0.00 30.78 44.55 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.76 1.74
stg020 6.31 4.05 0 0.00 24.59 62.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.35 1.24
stg021 6.5 1.37 1.24 0.86 32.69 47.88 1.72 0.66 0.00 0.00 5.20 1.88
stg026 2.73 1.13 0.00 0.57 30.60 56.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.41 2.75
urm035 5.96 1.19 0.38 0.00 31.32 53.92 2.69 0.03 0.00 0.00 2.91 1.59
urm045 3.21 0 0.51 0 24.75 57.23 0 2.18 0 0.05 12.06 0
urm160 5.95 1.97 0.49 0.85 28.25 55.52 0 0.46 0 0 4.58 1.92
urm161 8.81 0 0.00 0.00 41.48 43.45 3.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.14
Swedish Viking Modal 6.50 1.09 0.51 0.68 31.07 51.68 0.75 0.43 0.28 0.39 5.16 1.46

Comparison with modern populations

By comparing the Lombard, Suebi/Alemmanic, Ostrogothic, and Anglo-Saxon modal admixtures above with the Dodecad K12b averages for modern populations on Vahaduo, we can see how similar was each Germanic tribe with modern Europeans. The Lombards are very close (virtually identical) to the Northwest Germans, followed by the Dutch. The Suebi and Anglo-Saxons are genetically Scandinavian and Northwest German.

Lombards

  • Northwest Germans : 1.1
  • Dutch : 2.8
  • Icelanders : 3.4
  • Danes : 4.0
  • Germans : 4.1
  • North English : 4.2
  • South English : 4.8
  • Scots : 4.8
  • Swedes : 5.3
  • Irish : 5.7
  • Northwest French : 5.8
  • Czechs : 9.1

Alemanni/Suebi

  • Icelanders : 3.3
  • Northwest Germans : 3.4
  • Danes : 3.9
  • Swedes : 4.5
  • Germans : 5.0
  • Dutch : 5.5
  • North English : 5.7
  • Scottish : 5.9
  • Irish : 6.4
  • South English : 6.6
  • Northwest French : 7.5

Ostrogoths

  • Hungarians : 6.9
  • Austrians : 7.3
  • Bavarian Germans : 7.7
  • Slovenians : 9.0
  • Croats : 9.4

Anglo-Saxons

  • Icelanders : 4.6
  • Danes : 5.3
  • Swedes : 6.1
  • Irish : 6.5
  • Scots : 7.2
  • Northwest Germans : 7.6
  • North English : 7.8
  • South English : 9.3
  • Northwest French : 9.9

Swedish Vikings

  • Swedes : 3.9
  • Germans : 5.6
  • Danes : 5.8
  • Northwest Germans : 7.3
  • Icelanders : 7.4
  • Poles from Warmia-Masuria : 8.4
  • Czechs : 8.5
  • Dutch : 9.5
  • Slovaks : 9.8

Another way to go, instead of comparing ancient averages with modern averages, is to look at the closest individual matches between modern and ancient people. This analysis was done using MyTrueAncestry.com to compare the genomes of the Early Medieval Germanic individduals with those of modern Europeans. The results appear less reliable though.

Lombards

  • North Dutch : 2.2
  • Belgians : 3.1
  • English : 3.2
  • Swedes : 3.6
  • Danes : 3.7
  • Irish : 4.1
  • Scottish : 4.1
  • North Germans : 5.2
  • Norwegians : 5.9
  • West Germans : 6.2
  • Welsh : 6.4
  • North French : 7.0
  • South Dutch : 7.8
  • South French : 8.1

Anglo-Saxons

  • Danes : 5.7
  • Dutch : 5.7
  • Scottish : 6.2
  • Irish : 7.2
  • English : 7.3
  • Norwegians : 7.8
  • Welsh : 7.9
  • Germans : 8.0

Saxons

  • English : 4.1
  • Welsh : 4.5
  • North Dutch : 5.6
  • Irish : 6.0
  • Belgians : 6.1
  • Scottish : 6.3
  • Danes : 6.4
  • Germans : 6.9
  • North French : 8.2

Franks

  • English : 2.8
  • Belgians : 3.6
  • West Germans : 4.3
  • South Dutch : 5.2
  • North Germans : 5.2
  • Welsh : 5.8
  • Scottish : 6.2
  • Irish : 6.4
  • North Dutch : 6.4
  • Norwegians : 7.0
  • Danes : 7.6
  • North French : 8.3

Alemanni/Suebi

  • Belgians : 4.7
  • Germans : 5.0
  • Swedes : 5.0
  • English : 5.5
  • Dutch : 5.8
  • Irish : 6.7
  • Austrians : 7.5
  • North French : 8.0
  • Scottish : 8.1
  • Welsh : 9.2

Vandals

  • English : 4.2
  • Irish : 6.9
  • Scottish : 7.0
  • Welsh : 7.9

Ostrogoths

  • Swedes : 7.4
  • English : 7.4
  • East Germans: 9.0
  • Germans : 9.8

Visigoths

  • West Germans : 5.7
  • Belgians : 5.8
  • Welsh : 6.6
  • South Dutch : 6.7
  • English : 7.2
  • French : 8.8
  • North Dutch : 9.7

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