Distribution of Slavic paternal lineages in Europe
This map was computed by adding paternal lineages associated with the diffusion Slavic peoples from the Iron Age onwards. These include Y-DNA haplogroups I2a1b-CTS10228, R1a-CTS1211, R1a-Z92 and some branches R1a-M458. Some deep clades of E-V13, G2a, J2b2a and R1b-Z2103 may also be of Slavic origin, but as they have not yet been identified and no regional data is available, these were not been included. They might account for an extra 5 to 10% of Y-chomosomal lineages in Slavic countries. Within core Slavic countries like Western Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Poland, the remainder of the Y-DNA is mostly Uralic, Germanic, Iranic (Scythian) with also some Celtic in Poland, Czechia and Slovakia.
Combined Germanic Y-DNA haplogroups
Distribution of Germanic paternal lineages in Europe
This map was computed by adding Germanic lineages associated with the diffusion Germanic peoples from the Iron Age onwards. These includes Y-DNA haplogroups I1 (except some subclades of Finnish origin), I2a2a-L801, R1a-L664, R1a-Z284, R1b-U106, and R1b-L238.
Combined Celtic Y-DNA haplogroups
Distribution of Celtic paternal lineages in Europe
This map represents the paternal lineages associated with the spread of Proto-Italo-Celtic people from Central to Western Europe in the Bronze Age, starting circa 4,500 years ago. Their lineages belong to haplogroup R1b-S116 (aka P312), in other words most of the European R1b minus the Greco-Etruscan R1b-L23, the Germanic R1b-U106 and R1b-L238, and the Proto-Celto-Germanic L11, L51 and L150. S116 includes subclades associated with non-Indo-European languages such as Basque, and the ancient Gascon and Iberian languages. Since it is unclear exactly when and where Celtic languages developed and whether some Proto-Celtic speakers might have adopted indigenous languages in the land they settled (especially in Gascony and Mediterranean Iberia), all lineages were included for the purpose of this map, giving priority to Y-DNA over languages.
Distribution of Hallstatt/La Tène Celtic & Italic paternal lineages in Europe
This map was computed by adding Germanic lineages associated with the diffusion Hallstatt Celts, La Tène Celts and Italic (including Roman) peoples. These includes Y-DNA haplogroups G2a-L497, R1b-U152 as well as some clades of E-V13, J2a1-Z435 (PF5456 and Z2177) and J2b2-Z628.