This map is based on the OECD Better Life Index for 2016. Net financial wealth consists of : currency and deposits, securities other than share, loans, shares and other equity (including shares issued by investment funds), insurance technical reserves, and other accounts receivable or payable, net of household financial liabilities, as defined by the System of National Accounts – SNA. It does not include properties, pensions and life insurance.
Household median equivalised net income (Eurostat - 2015)
This map is based on the Eurostat for 2015. Additional regional data was used for Germany and Italy. The household income differs from the personal income or income by employee as it takes into account the number of people in the household (larger families have a lower household income) and the number of people working in the household. Countries with a higher percentage of women working and a lower gender gap for salaries (like Scandinavian countries) score higher household incomes. To calculate equivalised income, membres of the household receive different weightings. Total household income is then divided by the sum of the weightings to yield a representative income. The household median equivalised net income represents the disposable income after tax of a family right in the middle section of the population (half of the population being richer, the other half poorer). In other words, it could be seen as a representation of the most average middle class family.
Median equivalised disposable income in PPS (Eurostat - 2018)
This map is based on the data from Eurostat for 2018. The scale is in purchasing power standard (PPS), an artificial currency unit, which, theoretically, can buy the same amount of goods and services in each country. The median level of disponable income represents what the 'average worker' earns after taxes and social security have been deducted. This average worker's income is set so that exactly half of the people in the country earn more and the other half earn less. This median equivalised disposable income increased in every country from 2008 to 2018 except in Cyprus (- 6%) and Greece (- 23%). The biggest increases were in Romania (+ 103 %), Estonia (+ 78 %), Poland (+ 72 %), Slovakia (+ 58 %) and Lithuania (+ 56%).
Price of a Big Mac at McDonald's in USD (January 2022)
This map is based on the The Economist for January 2022. Data for missing countries was obtained from other websites.
Percentage of GDP from travel and tourism revenues (2019)
This map is based on the Eurostat for 2019. Data for missing countries was obtained from Knoema .
Wealth & Poverty
Relative Poverty (2012)
This map is based on percentage of the population living below national poverty line. The data is from the CIA World Factbook for 2012, except data for Iceland, Sweden, Finland, Italy, Libya and Saudi Arabia, which was extrapolated.
Household debt and loans as percentage of GDP (IMF - 2018)
This map is based on Credit Suisse's Global Wealth Database (2022) retrieved from Wikipedia. Median wealth is the amount that divides the population into two equal groups: half the adults have wealth above the median, and the other half below. It represents the most average citizen in the country.
Mean wealth by adult (Credit Suisse - 2022)
This map is based on Credit Suisse's Global Wealth Database (2022) retrieved from Wikipedia. Mean wealth is the amount obtained by dividing the total aggregate wealth by the number of adults. This represents the amount of money each adult would have if all the money and private assets were taken from everyone and evenly redistributed to each adult in the country. Countries with a minority of very rich people like the USA or Switzerland have considerably higher mean wealth than median wealth.
Percentage of millionaires in USD (Credit Suisse - 2022)
This map is based on the data from Fraser Institute for 2017. The index measures the degree of economic freedom present in five major areas: size of government, legal system and security of property rights, sound money, freedom to trade internationally, and regulations.
This map is based on the data from Eurostat and the OECD for 2021. Various other sources were used for missing countries.
Percentage of temporary workers (2018-21)
This map is based on the incidence of temporary employment from the OECD and Eurostat, as well as a few other sources.
Percentage of unionised workers (± 2018)
This map is based on trade union density data from the OECD for 2018. Data for missing countries is from Knoema or other sources.
Percentage of employees engaged at work (Gallup - 2022)
This map is based on data from Gallup's State of the Global Workplace: 2022 Report. Engaged workers are psychologically committed to their jobs and likely to be making positive contributions to their organisations.
Percentage of people with a thriving life (Gallup - 2022)
This map is based on data from Gallup's State of the Global Workplace: 2022 Report. Gallup describes 'thriving respondents' as those who have positive views of their present life situation (7 or higher rating on best life present) and have positive views of the next five years (8 or higher rating on best life future). Note that data for this survey was collected before the Russian invasion of Ukraine.
Minimum personal income tax rate
This map is based mostly on data from Wikipedia as of 2022. The tax rates include national/federal, state/regional and municipal taxes, but exclude mandatory social security contributions. The latter represent an additional 35% of income in Romania, 5.3% to 10.6% in Switzerland (depending on employment status), and 8.4% in Finland. Note that Switzerland has different taxation rates in each canton.
Maximum personal income tax rate
This map is based mostly on data from Trading Economics as of 2022. Note that Switzerland has different taxation rates in each canton.
Capital gain tax on shares for resident individuals
This map is based mostly on data from PWC's Worldwide Tax Summaries. Some countries require that shares be held a minimum of 6 months (e.g. Benelux) or 1 year to be tax exempt. North Macedonia is a paricular case. The tax rate is 15% if shares are held less than one year, 10% from 1 to 10 years, and 0% after 10 years. Countries in blue apply a progressive rate based on overall income. Note that Denmark and Finland have higher tax rates of 42% and 34% respectively after a certain threshold.
Tax on dividend from foreign companies for resident individuals
Maximum tax rate on the acquisition of a residential property
Various sources were used to collect the data for this map. The tax rate indicated comprises the total of all acquisition taxes and fees known, depending on the country, as stamp duty land tax (SDLT), notary fees, property registration fees, real estate tax (RET), real estate transfer tax (RETT), etc. The real estate agent's fee and the VAT on new properties are not included, as these do not apply to all purchases. Some countries (e.g. Cyprus, Israel, UK) have variable tax rates depending on the price of the property. In such cases the highest rate was taken into account. Note that a few European countries have different rates for corporate properties (e.g. Sweden). In Ukraine the maximum tax rate for primary property is 2%, but it can go up to 8.5% for secondary residences.
Value-added tax rate on the acquisition of a new residential property
Various sources were used to collect the data for this map. More details here.
Maximum annual property tax rate
Various sources were used to collect the data for this map, notably Immigrant Invest. Note that France abolished annual property tax from 2023 (except for corporations). The United Kingdom has traditionally had a tax-free regime on properties, but recently introduced a fixed annual charge (equivalent to about 0.4 to 1.1%) for 'enveloped dwellings' (i.e. owned by companies or other non-natural persons) on residential properties worth over £500,000.
Total Tax Revenues as Percentage of GDP (2017)
This map is based on the Our World in Data for 2017. Data for Libya, Egypt, Syria and Iraq are from other sources.
Home ownership rate (Eurostat - 2015)
This map is based on the various sources listed on Wikipedia but mostly from Eurostat data for 2015.
Average home size (Eurostat - 2012)
This map is based on the data from Eurostat for EU countries, and various sources for other countries.
This map is based on the data from the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index (2019) as reported by The Global Economy.
Railway Performance Index (2017)
This map is based on the data from the European Commission's Railway Performance Index (2017) as reported by BCG. The index is based on quality of service, safety and intensity of use. It is therefore quite different from the quality of infrastructure itself. Note that no data was available for Estonia and Greece.