Summary of the principal inventions by country
Inventions by chronological order
Paper currency (7th century, China)
Navigational compass (11th century, China)
Firearms (12th century, China)
Glasses (1280's, Italy)
Mechanical clock (1335, Italy)
Printing Press (c. 1440, Germany)
Invented by Johannes Gutenberg.
Viol (viola da gamba) and Cello (late 15th and 16th century, Italy)
Pocket watch (1510, Germany)
Invented by Peter Henlein.
Violin (Early 16th century, Italy)
- 1593 : Invented by Galileo Galilei (Italy)
- 1714 : Mercury thermometer invented by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (Poland/Netherlands)
Microscope (1595, Netherlands)
Invented by Zacharias Janssen.
- late 11th century : astronomical lenses (Sweden)
- 13th century : experimental telescopes built by Francis Bacon (UK)
- 1595/1608 : refracting telescope (Netherlands)
- 1609 : improved by Galileo (Italy)
Newspaper (1605, Belgium/France/Germany)
The world's first printed newspapers were the Relation aller fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien published in Strasbourg (Germany at the time, now France), and the Nieuwe Tijdingen, published the same year in Antwerp (part of the Spanish Netherlands at the time, now Belgium).
- 1623 : automatic calculator invented by Wilhelm Schickard (Germany)
- 1642 : adding machine invented by Blaise Pascal (France)
- 1954 : electronic calculator invented by IBM (USA)
Barometer (1643, Italy)
Invented by Evangelista Torricelli.
Daily newspaper (1645, Germany)
The Einkommende Zeitungen in Lepizing.
Pendulum clock (1657, Netherlands)
Invented by Christiaan Huygens.
Pressure cooker (1679, France)
Invented by Denis Papin.
Postage stamps (1680, England)
Adhesive stamp invented in 1840 in Britain
Clarinet (1690, Germany)
Invented by Johann Christoph Denner.
Steam engine (1698, UK)
Invented by Thomas Savery in 1698, and improved by James Watt in 1769.
Piano (early 1700's, Italy)
Invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori in Florence.
Fire extinguisher (England, 1723)
Patented in England in 1723 by Ambrose Godfrey.
Magazine (England, 1731)
The Gentleman's Magazine was the world's first general-interest magazine.
Refrigerator (1748-1856, Scotland/USA)
- 1748 : first known method of artificial refrigeration was demonstrated by William Cullen (Scotland).
- 1805 : first refrigerator invented by Oliver Evans (USA).
- 1834 : first patent for a vapor-compression refrigeration system granted to Jacob Perkins (USA).
- 1842 : first system for refrigerating water to produce ice developed by John Gorrie (Scotland-USA).
- 1848 : first commercial vapor-compression refrigerator developed by Alexander Twining (USA). It was commercialised in 1856.
Hot air balloon (France, 1782-83)
Invented by the brothers Josef and Etienne Montgolfier.
- 1785 : first modern parachute invented by Jean Pierre Blanchard (France).
- 1890's : Hermann Lattemann and his wife Käthe Paulus jump with bagged parachutes (Germany).
- 1911 : knapsack parachute invented by Gleb Kotelnikov (Russia).
Steam boat (1786, USA)
First built by John Fitch.
Vaccination (1796, Britain)
Edward Jenner is considered the founder of vaccinology in the West in 1796, after he inoculated a 13 year-old-boy with vaccinia virus (cowpox), and demonstrated immunity to smallpox.
- 1791 : Gas turbine patented by John Barber (England).
- 1826 : Reciprocating internal combustion engine patented by Samuel Morey (USA)
- 1867 : Petrol engine developed by Nikolaus Otto (Germany)
- 1892 : Diesel engine invented by Rudolph Diesel (Germany)
- 1924-57 : Rotary engine developed by Felix Wankel (Germany)
- 1936-39 : Jet engine developed simultaneously by Frank Whittle (England) and Hans von Ohain (Germany).
Submarine (1800, USA/France)
Invented by American Robert Fulton commissioned by Napoleon. First launched in France.
Ambulance service (early 1800's, France)
Modern method of army surgery, field hospitals and the system of army ambulance corps invented by Dominique Jean Larrey, surgeon-in-chief of the Napoleonic armies.
Locomotive (1804, UK)
Invented by Richard Trevithick. First Steam Locomotive invented by George Stephenson in 1814.
Railway (1820, UK)
The idea of the railway dates back to Roman times, 2000 years ago, when horse-drawn vehicles were set on cut-stone tracks. In 1802, the first modern horse-drawn train appeared in England, and the first steam powered train was however launched in 1820, also in England.
Comic strips (1820's, Switzerland)
Swiss Rodolphe Toepffer was probably the first modern cartoonist.
- 1825 : First photograph (France)
- 1840 : Silver photo (France)
- 1840 : Negative (UK)
- 1861 : Colour photography invented by James Clerk Maxwell (Scotland)
Gas stove/cooker (1826, England)
First patented and manufactured by James Sharp.
Lawn mower (1827, England)
Invented by Edwin Beard Budding.
- 1828 : first horse-drawn carriage on rail in Baltimore (USA).
- 1868 : first cable-car in New York (USA).
- 1873 : first steam-powered tram.
- 1880 : first electric tram in St. Petersburg (Russia) and the next year in Berlin (Germany).
Alternating current (1830-31, UK/USA)
Discovered independently around the same time by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry.
Light bulb (1835, UK/Germany)
- 1835 : first Incandescent light bulb invented by James Bowman Lindsay (UK).
- 1854 : first practical light bulb invented by Heinrich Goebel (Germany).
Saxophone (1840's, Belgium)
Invented by Adolphe Sax.
Telegraph (1844, USA)
Invented by Samuel Morse.
Telephone (1849, Italy)
The invention of the telephone has long been credited to the Scot Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. However, the Italian Antonio Meucci is now recognised to have invented the device as early as 1849.
Dishwasher (1850-1886, USA)
Steam-powered airship (1852, France)
Invented by Henri Giffard.
Synthetic dye (1856, Britain)
First developed by William Perkins, who discovered mauveine, the first synthetic dye, which effectively gave birth to the organic chemistry industry and led to the discovery of pharmaceuticals.
Helicopter (1861, France)
The earliest flying toys resembling the principle of a helicopter first appeared in China around 400 BCE. More advanced models were developed in Russia and France in the second half of the 18th century. The first small steam-powered model was invented by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, who also coined the word "helicopter". New models were developed mainly in France, notably by Emmanuel Dieuaide in 1877, Dandrieux in 1878, Jacques and Louis Breguet in 1906, or Paul Cornu in 1907. The first turbine-powered helicopter in the world was not built until 1951, in the USA.
Metro/Subway (1863, Britain)
The London Underground was the first rapid transit network in the world.
Antiseptic surgery (1865, Britain)
Joseph Lister used a carbolic acid solution to disinfect wounds and surgical instruments, thus succesfully preventing suppuration and gangrene. Nowadays Lister is considered by most in the medical field as "The Father of Modern Surgery".
Vacuum cleaner (1865, USA)
Dynamite (1866, Sweden)
Invented by Alfred Nobel.
Wrist watch (1868, Switzerland => Patek Philippe & Co.)
- 1874 : Radio waves identified by by James Clerk Maxwell (Scotland).
- 1875 : Thomas Edison patents electrostatic coupling system (USA).
- 1895 : first radio receiver developed by Alexander Stepanovich Popov (Russia).
- 1895 : first successful radio transmission acheived by Guglielmo Marconi (Italy/UK). Commercial radio patented the next year.
Loudspeaker (1876, Scotland)
Invented by Alexander Graham Bell.
Phonograph (1877, USA)
Invented by Thomas Alva Edison, although based on France-born Leon Scott's 1857 phonautograph.
Microphone (1877, Germany)
Invented by Emil Berliner.
Cash register (1879, USA)
Invented by James Ritty.
- First TV => 1884, Germany
- TV tube => 1907, Russia
- Electronic TV & Broadcast => 1927, USA
Motorcycle (1885, Germany)
First designed and built by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach
AC motor (1885-87, Italy/USA)
"Commutatorless" alternating current induction motors seem to have been independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla. Ferraris demonstrated a working model of his single-phase induction motor in 1885, and Tesla built his working two-phase induction motor in 1887.
Car/Automobile (1886, Germany)
Developed independently and simultaneously by Carl Benz in Mannheim, amd Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart.
Zipper (1891, USA)
Invented by Whitcomb L. Judson.
Animation (1892, France)
First animated film created by Emile Reynaud.
Tractor (1892, USA)
- first practical gasoline-powered tractor built by John Froelich in 1892.
- irst practical caterpillar tracks for use in tractors developed by Benjamin Holt in 1904.
Cinema (1894, France)
Cinematograph invented by the Lumiere brothers.
Electric stove/cooker (1896, USA)
First patented by William S. Hadaway.
Remote control (1898, Austria-Hungary)
First developed in 1893 by Nikola Tesla.
Air Conditioner (1902, USA)
Invented by Willis Carrier.
Plastics (1907, Belgium)
In 1907, the Belgian Leo Baekeland invented Bakelite, the first fully synthetic plastic. Bakelite was used as an electric insulator, as a replacement for ivory billiard balls, and to make telephones, furniture, kitchen equipment, bathroom fittings, pens, glasses, radios, cameras, toothbrushes and so on. It became known as the material for thousand uses.
Synthetic rubber (1909, Germany)
Fritz Hofmann and his team, working at the Bayer laboratory in Elberfeld, Germany, succeeded in polymerizing isoprene, the first synthetic rubber.
Synthetic fertilizers (1910s-20s, Germany)
The 1910s and 1920s witnessed the rise of the Haber process and the Ostwald process. The Haber-Bosch process produces ammonia (NH3) from methane (CH4) gas and molecular nitrogen (N2). The ammonia from the Haber process is then converted into nitric acid (HNO3) in the Ostwald process. The development of synthetic fertilizer has significantly supported global population growth — it has been estimated that almost half the people on the Earth are currently fed as a result of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use
Antibiotics (1911-1940s, Germany/UK/Russia/USA)
- 1911 : Paul Ehrlich develops the antibiotic drug Arsphenamine, the first effective treatment for syphilis, marketed by Hoechst AG under the trade name "Salvarsan". (Germany)
- 1928: Alexander Fleming discovers the antibacterial effects of penicillium mould. Penicilin would become the first broad-range antibiotic against staphylococci and streptococci. (Britain)
- 1940-41: Howard Florey devise a method of mass-producing penicilin. (Britain)
- 1942 : Gramicidin S, the first peptide antibiotic, is discovered by microbiologist Georgyi Frantsevitch Gause and his wife Maria Brazhnikova. (Russia)
- 1943 : Streptomycin, the first aminoglycoside to treat tuberculosis (among others), is isolated by Albert Schatz in the laboratory of Selman Abraham Waksman at Rutgers University, New Jersey. This laboratory would also discover several other antibiotics, including actinomycin, clavacin, streptothricin, grisein, neomycin, fradicin, candicidin, and candidin. (USA)
- 1947-49 : Chloramphenicol is first isolated from Streptomyces venezuelae in 1947. Two years later a team of scientists at Parke-Davis including Mildred Rebstock published their identification of the chemical structure and their synthesis, making it the first antibiotic to be man-made instead of extracted from a micro-organism. It is also the first of the amphenicol class of antibiotics. (USA)
Traffic lights (1914, USA)
Transistor (1925, Austria-Hungary)
Invented by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld and patented in Canada. William Shockley and a co-worker at Bell Labs, Gerald Pearson, had built operational versions from Lilienfeld's patents.
Parking meter (1935, USA)
Helicopter (1939, Russia)
Developed by Igor Sikorsky.
Microwave oven (1947, USA)
Invented by Percy Spencer.
Atomic clock (1949, USA)
Charge/credit card (1950, USA => Diner's Club)
Oral contraceptive pill (1951, Mexico)
Norethisterone, the first orally highly active progestin, was synthesized for the first time by chemists Luis Miramontes, Carl Djerassi, and George Rosenkranz at Syntex in Mexico City in 1951.
Video Games (1951-58, USA/UK)
Invention disputed between 3 people, 2 Americans and a Briton.
Laserdisk (1958, USA; commercialised by MCA and Philips in 1972)
Photocopier (1959, USA => Xerox)
Soft contact lenses (1961, Czech)
Invented by Otto Wichterle.
Cassette tape (1967, Netherlands => Philips)
LCD screen (1968, Germany)
Quartz watch (1969, Japan => Seiko)
Video tape (1972, Netherlands - Philips, later replaced by JVC's VHS)
Walkman (1977, Germany => commercialised by the Japanese Sony from 1979)
Compact Disk (1982, Netherlands/Germany - Philips)
CD-ROM (1985, Netherlands/Japan => Philips/Sony)
World Wide Web and web browser (1989-91, Britain)
English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989. He wrote the first web browser in 1990, while employed at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland, and released it to the general public in August 1991.
MiniDisk (1991, Japan => Sony)
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