Distribution of I1 in Italy (Boattini et al.)

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Haplogroup I1 is a marker of Germanic migrations to Italy. The Ostrogoths, Vandals, Lombards, Franks and Normans all left some I1 lineages behind them. The distribution of I1 is fairly homogeneous all over Italy, usually ranging from 1 to 5%. I had a look at the new study by Boattini et al. to see if hotspots could be identified. Let's also note that this is the first Italy-wide study that tests other I subclades than I2a1a (M26, former I1b2), and the first to confirm I1 percentages at a provincial level.

The first surprise came in Vicenza, where 17.5% of the male lineages belonged to I1, a proportion rarely seen outside Scandinavia or northern Germany. The other surprise were the 10.5% in Bologna.

Campobasso (14%) is the third hotspot, but that one was expected, as the city was founded by the Lombards, a tribe that originated in southern Sweden.

It's interesting to compare Campobasso, a Lombard city, with L'Aquila, a city founded in the 13th century by the Germans (mostly Swabians). While half of Campobasso's Germanic lineages are I1 (the rest being R1b-U106 and I2b1), L'Aquila completely lacks I1. Its Germanic lineages are one I2b1, one R1a, and one R1b-U106. This looks much more southwest German indeed. There is surely some I1, but the proportion within German lineages shouldnt exceed 10-15% if settlers came from southern Germany.

Apart from that, the frequencies observed were always within the expected range. I1 was completely absent from Sardinia and Catania, as in past studies.


North Italy

In Cuneo, south-west Piedmont, 1 out of 30 samples are I1 (3.5%).

In Savona/Genova, central Liguria, 2 out of 50 samples are I1 (4%).

In Como, north-west Lombardy, 1 out of 41 samples are I1 (2.5%).

In Brescia, north-east Lombardy, 1 out of 39 samples are I1 (2.5%).

In Vicenza, central-west Veneto, 7 out of 40 samples are I1 (17.5%).

In Treviso, central-east Veneto, 1 out of 30 samples are I1 (3.5%).

In Bologna, central Emilia-Romagna, 3 out of 29 samples I1 (10.5%).


Central Italy

In La Spezia-Massa, north-west Tuscany, 1 out of 24 samples are I1 (4%).

In Pistoia, central-north Tuscany, 0 out of 13 samples are I1 (0%).

In Grosetto-Siena, southern Tuscany, 4 out of 86 samples are I1 (4.5%).

In Foligno, central-east Umbria, 1 out of 37 samples are I1 (2.5%).

In Macerata, central-east Marche, 0 out of 40 samples are I1 (0%).


South Italy

In L'Aquila, Abruzzo, 0 out of 23 samples are I1 (0%).

In Campobasso, Molise, 4 out of 29 samples are I1 (14%).

In Benevento, Campania, 1 out of 36 samples is I1 (2.5%).

In Matera, Basilicata, 0 samples out of 25 are I1 (0%).

In Lecce, Apulia, 1 out of 39 samples is I1 (2.5%).

In Cosenza/Catanzaro/Crotone, Calabria, 1 out of 38 samples is I1 (2.5%).

In Catania, eastern Sicily, 0 out of 62 samples is I1 (0%).

In Ragusa, southeast Sicily, 1 out of 44 samples is I1 (2%).

In Agrigento, southwest Sicily, 1 out of 42 samples is I1 (2.5%)

In Olbia/Tempio/Nuoro, north-east Sardinia, 0 out of 40 samples is I1 (0%).

In Oristano, central-west Sardinia, 0 out of 42 samples are I1 (0%).


EDIT : I have added the hotspots on the I1 map.

Haplogroup_I1.gif
 
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vicenza was the centre of 2 ruling "german" families. The Ezellini from augsburg bavaria and the scaliger from swabian lands.

they brought many "german" austrian people to north italy.....most came in the March of Treviso

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scaligeri

The italians changed the name to la Scala family ( ladder ) but Scaliger is correct. their seat lay between verona and vicenza.
The ezellini lived at Bassano which sits under Vicenza province.

to conclude , we do not know if the goths, vandals etc brought this marker ..........let me know if you know more
 
This may sound weird, but I'm surprised the I1 percentages in Sicily weren't higher. With the Viking and then Norman landings, I assumed I1 would be in the lower double digits near some of the ports. I think more I1 will be found in Sicily over time.
 
This may sound weird, but I'm surprised the I1 percentages in Sicily weren't higher. With the Viking and then Norman landings, I assumed I1 would be in the lower double digits near some of the ports. I think more I1 will be found in Sicily over time.

Depends on the places. The Norman presence was not homogeneous in Sicily, like for any other ethnic group. Sicily is a patchwork. Catania, Ragusa, Agrigento to me seems not to be traditional Norman places in Sicily. Palermo area and some other areas could have much more I1.
 
From Di Gaetano, Cerutti, Crobu et alter (2009)

I1-M253

Caccamo (Pa) 18,75 %
Trapani 9,09 %
Alcamo (Tp) 8,33 %
Piazza Armerina (En) 7,14 %

I1b1b M26

Caccamo (Pa) 6,25%
Sciacca (Ag) 3,57 %
Trapani 3,03 %

I1b2a M223
Caccamo (Pa) 6,25%

I M170
Alcamo 4,17%
Trapani 3,03%

 
This may sound weird, but I'm surprised the I1 percentages in Sicily weren't higher. With the Viking and then Norman landings, I assumed I1 would be in the lower double digits near some of the ports. I think more I1 will be found in Sicily over time.

Look no further;

DiGaetano et al 2009
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2985948/

West Sicily = 8.2% I1-M253
---
East Sicily = 1.75% I1-M253
------

Also Rootsi et al 2004 - found 8.8% Hg I (not specified sub-clades)
http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/DNA.RootsiHaplogroupISpread.pdf

Equally Capelli et al 2005 - 8.5% Hg I (not specified sub-clades)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00538.x/pdf

Most of the samples [96 out of 141] from Boattini et al 2013 were from the East of Sicily; hence only 1.4% Hg I1

Historically the Normans settled in the Western part of the Island, amongst the fiefdoms they conquered from the Saracens;
Agrigento (the other 45 samples) declined in the Middle ages, so obv. not much Normannic resettlement;

The East was granted to Lombard (Christian / Latin) settlers; hence 7.1% R1b U-152 -Boattini 2013

R1a [M17] in Sicily is also interesting:
5.7% -Boattini 2013 / 5.5% -DiGaetano 2009

also to note of course:
R1b-U106 = 5.6% -Boattini 2013

majority from Catania which was an important Staufer Castle, during the
Hohenstaufen (Swabian) Dynasty;
 
Most of the samples [96 out of 141] from Boattini et al 2013 were from the East of Sicily; hence only 1.4% Hg I1

Historically the Normans settled in the Western part of the Island, amongst the fiefdoms they conquered from the Saracens;
Agrigento (the other 45 samples) declined in the Middle ages, so obv. not much Normannic resettlement;

The East was granted to Lombard (Christian / Latin) settlers; hence 7.1% R1b U-152 -Boattini 2013

R1a [M17] in Sicily is also interesting: 5.7% -Boattini 2013 / 5.5% -DiGaetano 2009

Right, samples from Boattini et alter were from East, and South South-East Sicily.

Lombards could be both R1b U-152, and R1a, IMHO. Also U-106, maybe. North-East and Central-East Sicily (Valdemone) were granted to Lombards, you're right again. And two communities not more existing near Palermo.

Your reconstruction is right and proper (I'm by my paternal line a descendant of Lombards of Sicily).
 
Right, samples from Boattini et alter were from East, and South South-East Sicily.

Lombards could be both R1b U-152, and R1a, IMHO. Also U-106, maybe. North-East and Central-East Sicily (Valdemone) were granted to Lombards, you're right again. And two communities not more existing near Palermo.

Your reconstruction is right and proper (I'm by my paternal line a descendant of Lombards of Sicily).

Wow, Lombards from Sicily; thats impressive
Ive read that you kept (in some comunes) the Old [Medieval] Gallo-Italic language for the last 1,000 years.

U-106 i would think is more German (Swabian) Staufer period
[i edited a bit about the Catania castle later on -post#6]
R1a could also be Normannic, since R1a is significant in Norway;
But im not familiar with sub-clades since all studies state the R1a in Sicily is M-17?
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/r1a/default.aspx?section=results

Both U-106 and R1a is very scarce in North West Italy [Boattini 2013 + other studies],
on the other hand U-152 is very dominant 32.2% -Boattini 2013 in NW Italy;

My specification: U-152 = Lombards / U-106 = Swabians[Germans] / I1-M253 = Normans [pos. also R1a]
 
Wow, Lombards from Sicily; thats impressive
Ive read that you kept (in some comunes) the Old [Medieval] Gallo-Italic language for the last 1,000 years.

That's true. In some comunes (San Fratello, Sperlinga, Nicosia...) it's still spoken our language, every day. My paternal line comes from one of these. We call our pais Safrareu or San Frareau, Sicilians call it Santu Frateddu. We're very jealous of our identity. Other Sicilians call us sometimes, in a derogatory manner, the Frenchies. But We don't enjoy any legal protection, as it happens for other linguistic minorities in Italy. In Italy linguistic minorities are very protected, except us and the Tabarchini people, Ligurian settlers who live in Carloforte in Sardinia and They still think to be in Liguria.
 
U-106 i would think is more German (Swabian) Staufer period
[i edited a bit about the Catania castle later on -post#6]
R1a could also be Normannic, since R1a is significant in Norway;
But im not familiar with sub-clades since all studies state the R1a in Sicily is M-17?
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/r1a/default.aspx?section=results

Both U-106 and R1a is very scarce in North West Italy [Boattini 2013 + other studies],
on the other hand U-152 is very dominant 32.2% -Boattini 2013 in NW Italy;

My specification: U-152 = Lombards / U-106 = Swabians[Germans] / I1-M253 = Normans [pos. also R1a]

Your specification seems fair. I have found on FTDNA a person from San Fratello (a true "gallo-italic" from San Fratello) that is U-106 and a person from Novara di Sicilia (another historical Lombard commune of Sicily) that is R1a. This is the reason why of my assumption about U-106 and R1a.

I Have discussed here

http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/27388-Normans-Gallo-Italics-and-Lombards-DNA-in-Sicily
 
I've gone full-bore "Rainman" and have been researching the Scaliger and Ezellini lines. I plan to look into San Frareau next.

Fantastic thread. Thanks to the contributors and Maciamo for starting this one...
 
I've gone full-bore "Rainman" and have been researching the Scaliger and Ezellini lines. I plan to look into San Frareau next.

Fantastic thread. Thanks to the contributors and Maciamo for starting this one...

Are you trying to find germanic links with I1 in italy ?

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Da_Polenta

da Polenta from Romagna region ........origins german ...........seek english text

da Carrara from Padua ........origins tyrolese ( where tyrolese germans then ...unsure )

Savorgnan from Udine .........origins austrian

The only italian family from NEI I know is the Este family ................but I never really looked.

What are you trying to prove? ...........Genetic markers belong to NO nationality..........we are all mongrel people in Europe and elsewhere
 
Not trying to prove anything Zanipolo. I agree we are mongrels.

I1 is a relatively uncommon line so I like to read up on it wherever it pops up.

**EDIT**
Also trying to link up to my I1 "tribe". DNA Tribes result pointed to a previously unknown autosomal link to Italy (Tuscany region) so I'm following that. Recently tested negative for Z140 at FTDNA-- which was surprising-- so I'm back to square one.
 
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Not trying to prove anything Zanipolo. I agree we are mongrels.

I1 is a relatively uncommon line so I like to read up on it wherever it pops up.

**EDIT**
Also trying to link up to my I1 "tribe". DNA Tribes result pointed to a previously unknown link to Italy (Tuscany region) so I'm following that. Recently tested negative for Z140 at FTDNA-- which was surprising-- so I'm back to square one.

so then, what subclade are you positive in ..........i.e the last one
 
so then, what subclade are you positive in ..........i.e the last one

Unknown, only I1 at this point.

**EDIT**
To explain, I went for the Z140 test (which is pretty far downstream) because I found an almost identical surname line with a fairly close STR profile that was Z140 positive, so I was thinking that would make the most sense. Didn't pan out that way.

The FTDNA site does offer names that are closest to your STR 37 profile, and one that is almost an exact match tested positive for P109 so might test for that SNP next.
 
Unknown, only I1 at this point.

**EDIT**
To explain, I went for the Z140 test (which is pretty far downstream) because I found an almost identical surname line with a fairly close STR profile that was Z140 positive, so I was thinking that would make the most sense. Didn't pan out that way.

The FTDNA site does offer names that are closest to your STR 37 profile, and one that is almost an exact match tested positive for P109 so might test for that SNP next.

use

http://predictor.ydna.ru/

it at least give you one subclade

or athey site since you are I
http://www.hprg.com/hapest5/

or even
http://members.bex.net/jtcullen515/HaploTest.htm

made especially for I people
 
Took it:

100% = I-M253 (doesn't really help because I knew that part)

Then for subclades it says ND=40% and L22un1= 37% with everything else coming in at 5% or less. Does ND stand for not determined?
 
This may sound weird, but I'm surprised the I1 percentages in Sicily weren't higher. With the Viking and then Norman landings, I assumed I1 would be in the lower double digits near some of the ports. I think more I1 will be found in Sicily over time.

The Normans settled mostly around Palermo, in north-west Sicily. This study did not include samples from northern Sicily. This case demonstrates just how big variations can be from one city/province to the next.
 
vicenza was the centre of 2 ruling "german" families. The Ezellini from augsburg bavaria and the scaliger from swabian lands.

they brought many "german" austrian people to north italy.....most came in the March of Treviso

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scaligeri

The italians changed the name to la Scala family ( ladder ) but Scaliger is correct. their seat lay between verona and vicenza.
The ezellini lived at Bassano which sits under Vicenza province.

Good to know. Thanks.

to conclude , we do not know if the goths, vandals etc brought this marker ..........let me know if you know more

There is no reason to believe that any Germanic people lacked I1.

I think that the four I1 samples from Campobasso is enough to prove that the Lombards had a remarkably high percentage of haplogroup I1. Among other Germanic haplogroups found in Campobasso were three R1b-U106 and one I2b1. The sample size is small, but judging from that, the Lombards appear to have had approximately 50% of I1, 37.5% of R1b, 12.5% of I2b1 and 0% of R1a. They originated in Scania, southern Sweden, where the haplogroup proportion is similar, except for the higher R1a and lower I2b1, as well as the presence of a minority of E, G, J and T which cannot be discerned from the native Italian one in Campobasso.

The Ostrogoths were the first Germanic tribe to invade Italy and the only one who had control over the whole peninsula. Their capital was in Ravenna, Romagna. Ferri et al. 2007 tested 98 individuals from Rimini and 65 from Valmarecchia, both near Ravenna. They found respectively 4% and 3% of I1+I2b, and 1% and 1.5% of R1a. They didn't test R1b subclades.

Some people on this forum have argued that the Goths were Slavic or at least a predominantly R1a tribe because of their Eastern European origins. Yet, all the places settled by the Visigoths (southern France + Iberia) and Ostrogoths (Italy) have more I1 (and R1b-S21) than R1a. This undeniably confirms the Scandinavian origins of the Goths.

As for the Normans, the presence of Germanic lineages where they settled in northern Sicily is blatant (although some Germanic lineages in Sicily could also be attributed to the Vandals).
 
majority from Catania which was an important Staufer Castle, during the
Hohenstaufen (Swabian) Dynasty;

That surely explains why Catania's Germanic lineages are mostly R1b-U106 (9.5% of the total in Catania in this study), just like L'Aquila's, but have very little I1.

My specification: U-152 = Lombards / U-106 = Swabians[Germans] / I1-M253 = Normans [pos. also R1a]

I usually agree with what you write, but how on earth would you think that U152 is of Germanic origin (and Swedish at that), while it is almost absent from Scandinavia !?
 

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