1. Maciamo

    Have you played Sid Meier's Civilization?

    Civilization is one of the most famous and popular video games of all times. First released in 1991, it has influenced at least two generations of strategy and war game enthusiasts, but also of practically anybody interested in history and technologies. Civilization 6 was released a few months...
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    U3 (mtDNA) = Ancient Egyptian?

    Hello! Could it be that U3 arose in prehistoric Egypt? U3 is still frequent along the Nile River in Egypt.
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    L = Indus people?

    Hello! Were the Indus people the first carriers of L? Are the Rapa Nui of Easter Island carriers of L? If so, that could be an indication that the Rongorongo script is actually related to the Indus script. How realistic is the idea that the Indus people were mostly R1a1, and when their...
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    U3 = Ancient Egytian?

    moved to paleogenetics
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    L = Indus people?

    moved to Paleogenetics
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    New phylogenetic tree of R1b-U106 (and Z381)

    I thought you might like to know that I have updated the phylogenetic tree of R1bU106/S21. Here is a preview, but it will look better in full screen by opening the window on the R1b page.
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    Major revision of E1b1b page

    I just want to let you know that I have revised almost the entire page on haplogroup E1b1b. I have added phylogenetic trees for E-V13 and E-M123 and rewritten separate history sections for V13, M81 and M123.
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    Where did mt-haplogroup H4 originate?

    Haplogroup H is the most common maternal lineage in Europe today. It is made up of over a hundred basal subclades. Some were already present in Europe during the Mesolithic period (e.g. H10 and H11), while others came with Near Eastern Neolithic farmers (e.g. H5). Others still were spread from...
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    Updated page and tree on Y-haplogroup T

    I have created two phylogenetic trees for haplogroup T and T-CTS2214. I have also updated the history section. The P77 and CTS6507 branch underwent a major expansion during the Early Bronze Age, from approximately 2500 BCE. The phylogeny suggests that this expansion took place from the...
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    Identifying the Roman subclades of J2a1

    In 2013 I explained in my Genetic history of the Italians that the ancient Italic tribes, including the Latins/Romans would have belonged primarily to R1b-U152 (especially Z56). I mentioned that the original Latins of the Roman Republic would also have carried G2a-L140 (specifically the L13...
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    New map of Y-DNA haplogroups in East Asia

    I have considerably expanded my Genetic history of the Japanese, and added regional frequencies in Japan and in neighbouring populations. The Y-DNA data is still too scare to make fine-scale distribution maps by haplogroup, but this map with pie charts should help visualise the bigger picture.
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    New pages dedicated to the genetics of the LBK and TRB cultures

    You may have seen the new page on the Funnelbeaker (TRB) culture a few weeks ago. Today I have added another one for the Linear Pottery (LBK) culture. Starcevo will be next. Linear Pottery Culture (c. 5600-4250 BCE) The expansion of Neolithic farmers from the Danube to Central Europe as far...
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    What are all the haplogroups that Adolf Hitler had?

    This question is because I saw on the internet that he had blood of white people of northern Africa. I would like to see the full result of his haplogroupos and if possible the percentages of each. If you are on a site that shows, put them liunks there for me to see. I love History.
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    Excavation of Must farm, UK's best bronze age site

    Just found this article on The Guardian: UK's best bronze age site dig ends but analysis will continue for years The site is a 3,000-year old Bronze Age village in Cambridgeshire that was abandoned after it burnt down. They found among others: - two complete spears (with the wooden part) -...
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    How much impact did slavery have on ancient gene pools in Europe ?

    I have long wondered how much of the modern Italian and Greek population descend from slaves imported from other countries. We have no idea at present if their genetic impact was minor (few slaves left descendants), moderate (e.g. 10% or 20% of modern genomes come from foreign slaves) or major...
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    Distribution map of Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroup in and around Europe circa 8000 BCE

    It's been a while since I haven't made any new maps. Here is an attempt to show what Europe, the Near East and North Africa looked like in terms of Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroups some 10,000 years ago. I delimited the (very) approximate borders of the first cereal/legume farmers in the Fertile...
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    Y-DNA and mtDNA frequencies in Proto-Indo-European cultures

    I have added the samples from Allentoft 2015 and updated the haplogroup frequencies in the section Haplogroups of Bronze Age Proto-Indo-Europeans.
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    Tracing back Phoenician & Arabic DNA in modern Spaniards using Haak 2015's admixtures

    Tracing back Phoenician & Arabic DNA in modern Spaniards using Haak 2015's admixtures I have updated the genome-wide section of my Genetic history of the Iberian peninsula by analysing Haak 2015's admixtures (K=20). Haak et al.'s autosomal data shows that the Basques and other North Spaniards...
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    Modern distribution of R1b-Z2103

    The new Haak et al. 2015 paper confirmed that Yamna Proto-Indo-Europeans belonged to haplogroup R1b. Four out of six R1b samples from the Volga-Ural region belonged to the R1b-Z2103 subclade, a branch of what used to be called R1b-ht35, the eastern variant of R1b-M269. Obviously the samples...
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    New map of haplogroup R1a-Z93 in Eurasia

    To complete the series of main R1a subclades here is the map of Z93 in Eurasia. I have tried to avoid colouring uninhabited regions (high mountains and deserts), but it may not be 100% accurate. Click on the map to get to the Y-DNA maps page, and click again to see a larger version.