Was Columbus of royal Polish descent?

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http://culture.pl/en/article/the-truth-behind-christopher-columbuss-polish-roots

The Truth behind Christopher Columbus’s Polish Roots
2016/09/02


Manuel Rosa, a Portuguese historian, claims that the man who discovered America was not of Genoese origin as is commonly believed, but descended from a Polish King. Culture.pl investigates his hypothesis.

The twelve-toed king

It is told that 15th-century Polish King Władysław III had six toes on each foot. He was also the son of the great Polish king Władysław Jagiełło, who defeated the Teutonic Order in the famous battle of Grunwald, and ruled over a mighty empire that ranged from the Baltic to the Black Sea. He ascended the Polish throne in 1434 and received Hungarian crown in 1440 to boot. As King of Hungary he waged war against the Ottoman Empire and died, at the age of 20, in the 1444 Battle of Varna, a crucial episode of the conflict. The fight was lost by the Hungarians and their allies and the king himself was slain on the field after leading a charge into the enemy’s ranks. However, the ruler’s body was never formally identified, a strange occurrence considering his unusual feet. This led to speculation that the monarch actually survived and that the accounts and stories about his death were untrue. According to some, after the lost battle the baffled king travelled to the Portuguese island of Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean, where he lived incognito as Henrique Alemao (Henry the German) for the rest of his days.

Portuguese historian Manuel Rosa supports the abovementioned hypothesis. Moreover, he maintains that after the battle the Polish king not only came to Madeira but also had a son, Christopher Columbus. That’s right. After over 20 years of extensive research, Rosa, an employee of Duke University, is dead certain that the great navigator was of royal Polish descent. Fluent in many languages, the historian studied countless accounts and documents about Columbus written in Spanish, Portuguese, English and Italian before he published this revelation in a book entitled Columbus ‒ The Untold Story. Interestingly, his dubious-sounding claim has some pretty substantial backing …

A golden double cross

Let’s break down the main arguments used by Rosa to support his theory that America’s discoverer was in fact the son of the Polish king Władysław III. First, he points out physical resemblance. (Look at the portraits above and judge for yourself.) Historic descriptions of the two point out similarities in their countenances. Additionally, Rosa found that Columbus’ original coat of arms had gold anchors on a blue background. It just so happens that Segismundo Henriques, son of Henrique Alemao (who did actually live in Madeira, beyond any doubt), also had a coat of arms with gold anchors on a blue background. And here the plot thickens: rulers of the House of Jagiełło, Władysław III among them, used a golden double cross on a blue background as their coat of arms, a symbol which closely resembles Columbus’s anchors very easily.

It is also worth noting that in the 16th century the descendants of Henrique Alemao were officially acknowledged by the Spanish royal court being descended from royal Polish lineage. This coincides nicely with a 1472 letter sent by a Franciscan monk from Portugal to the grand master of the Teutonic Order, in which the author writes that he’s seen Władysław III on Madeira. Two other monks, who were sent to Madeira from Poland, claimed they recognized the king in Alemao. One might add that in Portugal the term ‘Alemao’ (German) was once applied to members of all peoples from beyond the Rhine, including Poles.

A Madeira native

Why would Władysław III want to live incognito in Madeira, and be Henrique Alemao the humble knight, and not in Central Europe, where he would be king? Rosa postulates that he simply became disenchanted with ruling after being defeated by the Ottomans, and longed for a different life. As the king of a mighty state, he would have had to go through much hardship after his abdication, hence the elaborate scheme. In this version of events Columbus protected his father’s privacy by concealing his own background, of which he was probably aware.

Rosa’s theory, although exotic, helps explain certain facts from Columbus’ life. Namely, his marriage to a Portuguese aristocrat which occurred long before he became famous for discovering America, his receiving of a broad education that enabled him to become an expert navigator, and his residing in Madeira for some time, near Alemao’s palace. The first two events would have been unlikely to befall a simple weaver’s son from Genoa. On the other hand, they very well could have, for a man of royal descent. Additionally, Rosa believes that the Portuguese court was privy to the secret of Alemao’s identity and supported both him and his son, Columbus.

All in all, Rosa presents a strong case for Columbus’s Polishness.

Author: Marek Kępa, August 2016.

Check also this book review:

https://indiereader.com/2016/10/learn-truth-discoverer-america-columbus-untold-story/

They mention that a DNA investigation is planned. It should be pretty easy to distinguish a Jagiellonian descendant from a son of an Italian craftsman, both based on autosomal DNA and on Y-DNA.
 
Tomenable, you are gullible again and believe in miracles. Even if something makes you feel better, it doesn't make it true. It think if falls under confirmation bias.
 
Really? Based on what Vallicanus said, I thought he must have been a Lebanese of ancient Phoenician stock. After all, as he so helpfully pointed out, every European and especially every Italian accomplishment was actually the product of Near Easterners.

I personally somewhat favor alien origin, maybe the moons of Saturn.
 
Manuel Rosa is not even a historian, he works in IT (Information technology).

MANUEL ROSA is a Portuguese-American historian and author who emigrated from the Azores to the Boston area in 1973 with his parents. He employed his early professional life as a graphic artist working on books and national magazines including The Atlantic Monthly and Boston Magazine. He is also a recipient of the 1976 Boston Globe’s Art Merit Award.

Beginning in the mid 1990s he became a leading expert in the digital artwork field and was a consultant to Prentice Hall Publishing. In the year 2000, he began a new career in IT with Lockheed Martin Corporation, contracted with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences where his professionalism and high standards of quality earned him Lockheed Martin’s Lightning Award, in 2002. He is currently employed by Duke University Medical Center. He is currently employed by Duke University Medical Center.
.
 
The name Colombus exist only in two place in Earth, Torino and Χιος Chios
Κολοβος means the one with 'cut' tail, trancated, tailless and also is alternative of roe-deer, and generally deers and antilopes
Koλομπο (κοlompo) is also the dwell behind the port of Chania Crete,
also Kολυμβω Κοlumpo means swimmer.

that is island of Chios, which was Genoua's colony at that times,

in his letters to Donna Joanna του Torres he reveals his origins
but his was born in Genoua, but not in the place that is considered as his home,
his real home collapsed at 1700 and above is build a monastery,

Taviani (of Colompus time)also mention his love for Chios,
AND HE IS THE ONLY WEST EUROPEAN THAT WAS ACCEPTED TO THE TOWER OF ΙΟΥΣΤΙΝΙΑΝΗΣ ΜΠΑΝΚΑΣ.
a noble of Constantinoupolis court, which means that Colompus was from Noble family nearby the throne of Byzantium,

Ruth Wolper found at 1972 Pyrgi Chios island the Colompos villa, and the marmor plate (θυρεος) at the door which has writen the name Kολομβος is from 1440 AD,
same time is also the name at episcopal (bishop's) matrix of habitatnts,
beside Colompus signature was Χροferens Colompus of terra ruba (tera rumba is a coastal small valley at south of Chios island)

the name Kolombos still exist at Chios island, possibly 1 male escape the Chios Disaster/massacre at Greek revolt at 1821.

PS
besides if it true, America was discovered at 500 AD. :grin:


Both RuTh Wolper and Δ Σισιλιανος who made wide search notice that all his written are in Greek, especially at MAGO MUNDI his favorite book.
in fact by Colompos letter to Donna JUanna of Torrens Wolper and Σισιλιανος believe that he might comed from Con/polis nobility and was a Δισυπατος (emperror Palaiologos family relative)

Certain is the name exists at Chios island before Genoua, and exist even today.
and his title is a land at Chios island,
and Born at Genoua,
and he was not son of weaver's but sailor's family noble,
and that is not his house, the house he was born is little distance nearby a monastery build at 1710 about.
 
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And the hits just keep on a coming. Anyone else? There have to be some other nationalities that want to get into the act besides the Poles, the Greeks, and the Catalans? :)
 
And the hits just keep on a coming. Anyone else? There have to be some other nationalities that want to get into the act besides the Poles, the Greeks, and the Catalans? :)


Chios island,

under Genouates (Genovese) control from 1346 to 1566

sorry it is true,

L'8 giugno 1363, l'imperatore bizantino Giovanni V Paleologo, conferisce i titoli di Re, Despota e Principe di Chio, ai seguenti nobili patrizi genovesi: Nicolò de Caneto de Lavagna, Giovanni Campi, Francesco Arangio, Nicolò di San Teodoro, Gabriele Adorno (doge di Genova dal 1363 al 1370), Paolo Banca, Tommaso Longo, Andriolo Campi, Raffaello de Forneto, Luchino Negro, Pietro Oliverio e Francesco Garibaldi e Pietro di San Teodoro. Con il conferimento di questi titoli, questi maonesi, avevano il dominio su: Chio, Samo, Enussa, Santa Panagia e Focea.
Il dominio della Repubblica di Genova si concluse nel 1566, dopo un lungo e sanguinoso assedio da parte dell'Impero Ottomano. In quell'anno nell'isola di Chio vi erano 12000 Greci ortodossi ed oltre 2600 Genovesi cattolici (ossia un quinto del totale della popolazione era "latino")[2]: vi era parlato un dialetto coloniale genovese (il Chiotico).

Besides Colompus at his epistoles writes: I am not the first captain of my family, from Colon (le Jeune) it is my name

and both his son Ferdinard and Bartholomeo Las Casas (a historian monk the times of Colompus) say about his connection with Palaiologos family (Γεωργιος Παλαιολογος Δισυπατος, the exiled prince who become pirate as Colon le Jeune)

historian Taviani also mentions Chios island,

besides if he was born at 1451 and was a weaver till his 23 (1474!!!) the story is wrong, atopon. (forty years in prison he writes at 1500).

he knew excellent Greek Latin and Spanish at 14!!!!!! and secrets of maths and astronomy that even admirals do not know at 23 !!!!!! with out entering sea !!!!!

his signature
%CE%95%CE%B9%CE%BA%CF%8C%CE%BD%CE%B12.jpg


Not only
how come he married a Portoguese nobility if he was just a weaver's son? his nobility was given by Italians at 20 may 1493
and how come his brother Bartholomeos until 1492 lived as famous cartographer (needs very good maths) at Henry 7th court and at Louis Versailles Paris?

so what Colompus say about his origin
as also that he was at Chios at 1463 with Ship ROXANA and with Jiovani Di Negro and Nicola Spinola and not at 1474
and after he become Colompus of terra ruba (valley south of Pyrgi Chios)

the only corect that fits with what he himshelf, his son and other historians wrote
is that Colompus was born or raised at Genova but at 1436-9, possibly to hide him, and his family exist at Chios as the villa has the mark and name from 1440,
visited Chios at 1462-3, and was noble and educated and pirate comrade with Colon le Jeune (Γεωργιος Παλαιολογος)

sory, it not a hit under the belt,
it is the missing link of his story, that we did not ever heared

if you think that all the above are incorrect then sorry they are true
 
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Come on. This thread remember me this:
My Big Fat Greek Wedding- Give me any word and I show you the greek root

But there is the sequel:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/My_Big_Fat_Greek_Wedding_2

Gus has ridiculously convinced himself that he is a direct descendant of Alexander the Great and wants an online ancestry site to confirm this.
At the wedding reception, Gus receives a note from the ancestry site verifying that he is indeed a descendant of Alexander the Great.


Hahahahahaha.
 
No, no, he was Canadian. :D
 
Come on. This thread remember me this:
My Big Fat Greek Wedding- Give me any word and I show you the greek root

But there is the sequel:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/My_Big_Fat_Greek_Wedding_2

Gus has ridiculously convinced himself that he is a direct descendant of Alexander the Great and wants an online ancestry site to confirm this.
At the wedding reception, Gus receives a note from the ancestry site verifying that he is indeed a descendant of Alexander the Great.


Hahahahahaha.


you wanted or not

the house of at Chios island is repaired by EU arcaiologists with EU money since was damaged by earthquake
as Οικια Κολομβου 1440 with EU flag

gr001.jpg



now go back to read some childish propaganda
and let your irony
you attack me again

I guess first time you hear names of pirates
or you see such a plate !!!!!!

it SAYS

KOLOMBO'S HOU
SE


if you can see it
So now you can drink back the poison and irony you served
:LOL:
Chears


Oh plz NO No do not turn to Green colour!!! hate and anger are bad
especially when the other is telling the truth

firmacolombo.jpg

A sinistra la firma di Colombo prima del 1492, a destra la firma da "Ammiraglio" al servizio della Corona di Castiglia.



 
Tesi Sulla nascita a Chios di Cristoforo Colombo

La presenza, non la nascita, a Chios di Cristoforo Colombo è certa, egli soggiornò a Chios per più di un anno ospite nel 1474 all’età di circa venti anni, ospite da Angelo Giustiniani Banca, figlio di: Andreolo Banca (1385-1456), autore della storia in versi latini della guerra contro Venezia del 1431, amico del Papa Eugenio IV.
La tesi “Chiota” della nascita di Cristoforo Colombo, non sarebbe in ogni caso contraria alla sua genovesità, essendo Chios all’epoca (è già da un secolo) possedimento Genovese amministrato dalla Maona dei Giustiniani. Azzardato sarebbe dire che sia greco nel senso etimologico moderno.
La tesi è sostenuta in particolare dallo studioso Ruth G. Durlacher-Wolper (Christophoros Columbus: A Byzantine Prince from Chios, Greece. The New World Museum, San Salvador, Bahamas. 1982) , direttore del New World Museum di San Salvador.

columbus.jpg

La teoria della sua nascita nell’isola di Chios è una delle tante ipotesi che si rincorrono intorno al motivo per cui è documentata la presenza di Colombo nell'isola per circa due anni, quando il navigatore era poco più che ventenne.
Quel che è certo è che Chios ha rappresentato per Cristoforo Colombo la prima grande avventura in mare, la prima lunga navigazione, partendo da Savona il 25 maggio 1474 secondo alcuni storici, da Noli un anno prima secondo altri. A Chios Colombo era andato a cercare fortuna, a trovare una sua strada autonoma dagli affari di famiglia legati alla tessitura. E il commercio più redditizio del sito era quello del mastice. Ne parlò lo stesso navigatore nel suo giornale di bordo il 12 novembre 1492 quando, a Cuba, credette di aver trovato il lentisco, la pianta da cui si ricava la mastica: ma quanto alla resina del lentisco essa è di grande pregio poiché non se ne trova che nell’isola di Scio. Ove credo, se la memoria non mi inganna, che ne ricavino per un valore di 50.000 ducati.
Come abbiamo detto, Cristoforo Colombo nacque vicino a “terra rossa” o “campo rosso”, termine assai frequente nell’isola di Chios per indicare il tipico colore della terra.
Colombo sottolinea che il soggiorno nel Levante lo aveva ispirato in prima linea: attraverso le conversazioni con greci, ebrei e mori eruditi fu stimolato verso lo studio della cosmografia. Da questo momento in poi è sorta in me la curiosità di esplorare il mondo.
La firma di Colombo "Xro-Ferens" Christophoros è scritto in greco-latino o Bizantino e si firma scrivendo Chios con la “X” greca. Inoltre il nome di “Cape Maysi” a Cuba si usano le lettere greche di Alpha and Omega.
Altri intriganti elementi, ma non gli unici, sono il fatto che il navigatore conoscesse la produzione del mastice, esclusiva di Chios, e calcolasse le distanze percorse con una "misura segreta" di origine greca utilizzata, all'epoca, solo nell'Egeo.
colombo1.jpg

Il figlio di Cristoforo Colombo, Ferdinando, scrive che proviene da una terra di marinai, ma che la sua famiglia di origine Genovese aveva una lunga storia nel commercio delle stoffe. Avevano vissuto a Genova e da li egli scrive al padre, ma anche nel testamento di Colombo non si fa menzione di una casa a Genova.
la marineria genovese di Chios era rinomata e riconosciuta fin dal XV secolo.
La teoria "greca" si lega a quella che afferma che Colombo in realtà fosse un principe bizantino (vedi in inglese: Cristoforo Colombo, fu un principe Bizantino? ). A Chios esiste il villaggio di Pyrgi che si dice un tempo si dice che gli abitanti chiamavano "Colombus" (KOLOMVOS). Sicuramente qualcuno del suo equipaggio nella prima spedizione verso l'America era Chiota. Lo stesso Colombo, cita molte volte nel suo giornale di bordo verso l’America l’isola di Chios, ricordiamo inoltre che non scriveva e parlava Italiano anche se a tal epoca non esisteva ancora una lingua nazionale come tale (diversi documenti in “The four Voyages of Columbus”. Hakluyt Society. London, 1930.)
L’indizio che fa pensare a Colombo come un principe bizantino è quello che negli scritti tra il figlio Ferdinando e lo spagnolo Bartolomeo Las Casas.
Di Cristoforo Colombo si conservano relativamente pochi documenti autografi; inoltre, se conveniamo con F. Streicher quando considera che i due punti davanti alla X e il nesso di questa X con l'abbreviazione indicano che la firma non è autentica, allora dovremo escludere i testi VI, XIII, XLIV, LIX e le annotazioni al "Ptolemeo" della Accademia della Storia di Madrid. In ogni caso, gran parte degli scritti colombiani, tra cui quelli di maggior spessore, sono giunti fino a noi grazie a copie che dobbiamo, nella stragrande maggioranza dei casi, alla penna di un'altra figura insigne: fra' Bartolomé de Las Casas. Questo fatto richiede un chiarimento. Las Casas e Diego Colombo, il primogenito, si conobbero alla Espanola, dove quest'ultimo era giunto come Ammiraglio nel 1509. Subito tra i due si stabilì una reciproca simpatia. Negli scritti dei due, si parla che Bartolomeo Las Casas "ha navigato con il mio parente Colon il giovane, il greco, il pirata”. Colon il giovane era membro di una delle più imporatni famiglie Bizantine, quella dei Palaeologi. Giorgio Palaeologus Disipatos e anche conosciuto come “Giorgio il Greco”, tornato pirata dopo la caduta di Costantinopoli nel 1453.
Credo che questa deduzione sia comunque falsa in quanto a partire dal 1475 un altro comandante di flotta si aggiunge alla guardia di Colombo: Gorge Paleologue, il quale era chiamato anche Colombo il Giovane. Il re francese Luigi XI nel 1473 aveva dovuto farlo arrestare per istruirlo a diventare il comandante della flotta francese (Roncière 1914, S. 377). Hernando Colón scrive che successivamente Cristoforo Colombo navigò„ per lungo tempo nella società di Colombo il Giovane “Questi fu nominato il ’Giovane’ per differenziarlo dal suo famigerato omonimo (Guillaume de Casenove) George Plaologue, che portava anche il soprannome di "Bissipato" o "il Greco“ nato dalla dinastia regnante bizantina dei Paleologi). Poiché si conoscono i discendenti dell’ultimo imperatore bizantino, egli proveniva da quella linea secondaria che apparteneva alla contea del Monferrato, a nord di Genova. Colombo il Giovane viene menzionato negli atti segreti veneziani spesso insieme a "omplices, colligati“ e "servidori“ , di quando in quando si parla anche di un certo Nicolò o Giovanni Gringo, altri due bizantini che allora si trovavano al servizio della Francia (Salvagnini, 1894, p. 176).
Colombo viene dal nome Colon, come usualmente si faceva chiamare Cristoforo Colombo. Questa provenienza spiega (per l’autore) anche perchè Colombo scriveva in Greco-latino (anche se, e questo lo dico io, era abbastanza usuale per i Genovesi di Chios scrivere in franchi otico: il greco con i caratteri latini).
Questi fatti sono le principali argomentazioni di Ruth G. Durlacher-Wolper per dimostrare l’identità greca di Cristoforo Colombo:

1) la firma di Colombo "Xpo-Ferens" (Christophoros), è in greco-latino (Bizantino).
2) Colombo scrive di Chios con la “X” greca (Xios)
3) Colombo rimarca l’angolo delle sue lettere con la lettera greca “X” per “Xios” o per “Xpo-Ferens”, il suo nome
4) Il nome dato da Colombo di “Cape Maysi” a Cuba e scritto con le lettere greche di "Alpha e Omega."
5) Colombo non ha mai chiesto agli “Italiani” navi o aiuto anche quando ne aveva bisogno e mai gli “Italiani” gli ne hanno dato.
6) Colombo non ha mai parlato o scritto in Italiano.
7) Colombo riportava a margine note in greco nel suo libro più caro “Imago Mundi” del Cardinale Pierre d'Ailly.
8) Colombo era chiamato appunto Genovese perchè Chios era un dominio Genovese
9) Colombo chiamava se stesso e firmava i documenti come: "Columbus de Terra Rubra" (Colombo della Terra Rossa), perché è rossa la terra della mastikora nel sud di Chios.
10) Colombo si appoggiava al Banco di San Giorgio come gli altri Chioti genovesi perchè: a) Chios era una colonia genovese, b) Chios era Genovese dal 1346
11) Colombo celava la sua vera identità perchè temeva di essere ucciso dai Turchi dopo la caduta di Costantinopoli (aggiungerei che erano Chioti i soldati genovesi al seguito di Giovanni Giustiniani Longo generale nella difesa di Bisanzio)
12) Colombo si presentava chiamandosi "Colon," e scriveva che aveva nagivato con parenti di sangue reale che avevano questo nome.
13) Colombo scrisse due “libri di calcoli” sulle misure geografiche di San Salvador. Colombo afferma che quello “vero“ era in greco, quello “falso” in latino. L’autore li mostra scritti in greco " affermando che era la sua lingua ufficiale.
14) Ferdinando Colombo suo figlio, non trovò traccia degli antenati del padre negli archivi di Genova e scrisse di non essere in grado di trovare la casa in cui viveva



photo of house

Columbus-House-in-Chios.jpg



tumblr_inline_ml1yssE0ms1qz4rgp.jpg
 
The name Colombus exist only in two place in Earth, Torino and Χιος Chios
Κολοβος means the one with 'cut' tail, trancated, tailless and also is alternative of roe-deer, and generally deers and antilopes
Koλομπο (κοlompo) is also the dwell behind the port of Chania Crete,
also Kολυμβω Κοlumpo means swimmer.

that is island of Chios, which was Genoua's colony at that times.

Colombo is most likely one of the most common surnames in North-west Italy.
 
Yetos then trough Palaiologos we can claim share on him hehehe,since on mother side they were descent of Dejanovic,i know nothing about Columbus origin,but i will agree that he is Genoese,hence Italian even if there is posibility that he immigrated from somewhere else.
 
Gentlemen, can we please try not to get into another discussion based on unreliable sources and unreliable facts? Also, check your claims for accuracy before you make them.

This is the distribution of the surname "Colombo" in Italy. For people who are apparently not very conversant with Italian geography, the area of highest concentration is not Torino, and not even the region of Piemonte.

http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turismo-viaggi-e-tradizioni-italia?cognome=Colombo&x=27&y=13
turismo-viaggi-e-tradizioni-italia


Ed. The area with the intense band of circles reaching into the sea is GENOVA.

The ten most common surnames in Italy:
According to the site Gens [1], the following are the most common surnames in Italy:

  • Rossi.
  • Russo.
  • Ferrari.
  • Esposito.
  • Bianchi.
  • Romano.
  • Colombo.
  • Ricci.

Is there by any chance a full moon tonight?

 
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Christopher Columbus was a ruthless pirate who abused native Americans. We should boycott his holiday and I support the native Americans' efforts to tarnish his memory.
 
Christopher Columbus was a ruthless pirate who abused native Americans. We should boycott his holiday and I support the native Americans' efforts to tarnish his memory.

Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan, and countless other admired historical figures did horrible things. That doesn't mean we shouldn't admire them. Columbus should be remembered and I have no problem with a Columbus day because his discovery of America changed world history like few other events in history. Schools should teach the horrible things he did and why he's so important to world history.
 
Gentlemen, can we please try not to get into another discussion based on unreliable sources and unreliable facts? Also, check your claims for accuracy before you make them.This is the distribution of the surname "Colombo" in Italy. For people who are apparently not very conversant with Italian geography, the area of highest concentration is not Torino, and not even the region of Piemonte. http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turismo-viaggi-e-tradizioni-italia?cognome=Colombo&x=27&y=13
turismo-viaggi-e-tradizioni-italia
Ed. The area with the intense band of circles reaching into the sea is GENOVA.The ten most common surnames in Italy:According to the site Gens [1], the following are the most common surnames in Italy:
  • Rossi.
  • Russo.
  • Ferrari.
  • Esposito.
  • Bianchi.
  • Romano.
  • Colombo.
  • Ricci.
Is there by any chance a full moon tonight?
Come on Russo It is very common in Greece especcialy at Megle Aromani populationsDemi Russos
 
Christopher Columbus was a ruthless pirate who abused native Americans. We should boycott his holiday and I support the native Americans' efforts to tarnish his memory.

sooner or later, what happened to the native Americans would happen, with or without Columbus
 

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