Population genomics of the Viking world (Margaryan et al 2020)

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This one has 11.4% North African in them, it should be noted that the settlement of Muslims in Foggia started in 1225 AD, and lasted for 75 years. However, these people were killed, exiled, or sold into slavery. I am not certain if their specific legacy was able to prevail.
 
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This one has 11.4% North African in them, it should be noted that the settlement of Muslims in Foggia started in 1225 AD, which predates all of the samples, and lasted for 75 years. However, these people were killed, exiled, or sold into slavery. I am not certain if their specific legacy was able to prevail.



What does his eurogenes k13 values ?
I mean north atlantic , baltic , west med, west asian, east med, red sea... ?
Does he score small % sub-sharan like the previews one vk535?
Regards
Adam
 
What does his eurogenes k13 values ?
I mean north atlantic , baltic , west med, west asian, east med, red sea... ?
Does he score small % sub-sharan like the previews one vk535?
Regards
Adam

I'm not an expert on eurogenes calculators, tbh.
 
I'm not an expert on eurogenes calculators, tbh.

But overall from those 2 foggia samples
We can say they are southern european autosomaly with north african tendecy which are lack in modern apulians ? ..:unsure:
 
But overall from those 2 foggia samples
We can say they are southern european autosomaly with north african tendecy which are lack in modern apulians ? ..:unsure:

I think traces are likely, but these two seem to have a more significant amount. However, I think it is also likely that Puglesi are different from one another at least on the provincial level. Me and Salento are pretty similar, but I think people from Foggia are probably somewhat different; perhaps closer to Basilicata as per the graphic below. Again, I am not sure that this North African element survived to the extent of the Medieval samples in modern Foggia. We would need to compare them to Modern Foggia:

STYXZOW.png
 
Maybe you are like Salento ...an ancient Iapygian ( daunian, or Messapic or Peucetian)

The Daunians (Greek: Δαύνιοι, romanized: Daúnioi; Latin: Daunii) were an Iapygian tribe that inhabited northern Apulia in classical antiquity. Two other Iapygian tribes, the Peucetians and the Messapians, inhabited central and southern Apulia respectively. All three tribes spoke the Messapic language
[h=2]Presence in ancient Italy
There are numerous testimonies among ancient authors (Pseudo-Scylax, Virgil, Festus, Servius) of a presence of the Daunians beyond the Apennines in Campania and Latium where some towns claimed Diomedian origins. The most notable instance is Ardea, the centre of the Rutulians who were considered Daunians: Vergil writes that Turnus' father was Daunus. Festus writes that a King Lucerus of Ardea fought along with Romulus against Titus Tatius and this is the origin of the name of the Roman Luceres.[6]
[/h]
Foggia was settled by the Iapygian Daunians
 
The reason for the difference is because during the "Viking Age", central Sweden appears to be the source of migration of many raiders(?) I suppose. These lineages are a legacy of the LN Battle Axe period, rich in I1 and R1a such as the Estonian ship burial and the genomes from the recent Icelandic study a couple years back. However, northern Germany and Denmark are considerably richer in R1b, and we should see this with when Single Grave culture remains come out later this year. We've also seen a reflux of a variety of R1b lineages in the Late Bronze Age. It could be that some of the R1b lines from SGC, which are earlier plot with central Swedes and eastern Norwegians "vikings". (ie: U106, L238, and L11x(P312/U106) In my view there was probably a haplogroup division between northern, or at least northwestern Germany, Denmark, and southern Scandinavia being richer in R1b, but central Sweden and eastern Norway pretty much lacking R1b.

The two questions I have are as follows:

1. Who are the original Germanic speakers? (I think the southerners, because Anglo-Saxons were never in Scandinavia)
2. Why is L21+ so high in southern and western Norway? A recent phenomenon?
 
those samples carry an extra ethnicity than me and most Pugliesi, I think, ...

last part of my EU K13:

dMAzJSe.png
 
Maybe you are like Salento ...an ancient Iapygian ( daunian, or Messapic or Peucetian)

The Daunians (Greek: Δαύνιοι, romanized: Daúnioi; Latin: Daunii) were an Iapygian tribe that inhabited northern Apulia in classical antiquity. Two other Iapygian tribes, the Peucetians and the Messapians, inhabited central and southern Apulia respectively. All three tribes spoke the Messapic language
Presence in ancient Italy
There are numerous testimonies among ancient authors (Pseudo-Scylax, Virgil, Festus, Servius) of a presence of the Daunians beyond the Apennines in Campania and Latium where some towns claimed Diomedian origins. The most notable instance is Ardea, the centre of the Rutulians who were considered Daunians: Vergil writes that Turnus' father was Daunus. Festus writes that a King Lucerus of Ardea fought along with Romulus against Titus Tatius and this is the origin of the name of the Roman Luceres.[6]



Foggia was settled by the Iapygian Daunians

I'm not sure I'm an Ancient Iapygian,
maybe I’m, ... I speculate, ... I look for clues :)
 
Nice(y)
Lukas can you post his eurogenes k13 values?
(I still like this calculator )
Kind regards
Adam

Check in Admixturestudio this file for other calcs.

Components %
North_Atlantic 20,22
Baltic 7,68
West_Med 19,16
West_Asian 13,86
East_Med 29,90
Red_Sea 6,73
South_Asian 0,00
East_Asian 0,00
Siberian 0,70
Amerindian 0,00
Oceanian 0,00
Northeast_African 0,11
Sub-Saharan 1,64



Mixed Mode:
1 50,39% Lebanese_Christian + 49,61% AostaValley @ 1,948
2 50,39% AostaValley + 49,61% Lebanese_Christian @ 1,978
3 94,92% Basilicata + 5,08% Yemenite_Jewish @ 2,059
4 94,92% Basilicata + 5,08% Saudi @ 2,140
5 62,11% Cyprian + 37,89% French @ 2,151
6 62,11% Greek_Cypriot + 37,89% French @ 2,151
7 94,14% Basilicata + 5,86% Egyptian @ 2,253
8 52,73% Nusayri + 47,27% Swiss_Italian @ 2,287
9 94,14% Basilicata + 5,86% Bedouin @ 2,312
10 93,36% Basilicata + 6,64% Palestinian @ 2,313

Least-squares method.

Using 1 populations approximation
1 100% Basilicata @ 2,946
2 100% Abruzzo @ 3,755
3 100% Molise @ 3,829
4 100% Campania @ 4,104
5 100% Apulia @ 4,385
6 100% Sicily @ 4,435
7 100% Malta @ 4,828
8 100% Greek_Andros_Island @ 4,841
9 100% East_Sicilian @ 4,940
10 100% West_Sicilian @ 5,412

Using 2 populations approximation
1 50% Lebanese_Christian + 50% AostaValley @ 1,950
2 50% Lebanese_Muslim + 50% Swiss_Italian @ 2,622
3 50% Nusayri + 50% Swiss_Italian @ 2,623
4 50% Samaritan + 50% AostaValley @ 2,752
5 50% Lebanese_Muslim + 50% Swiss-Italian @ 2,754
6 50% Piedmont + 50% Nusayri @ 2,767
7 50% Sephardic_Jewish + 50% Greek_Central-Macedonia @ 2,816
8 50% Lombardy + 50% Nusayri @ 2,845
9 50% Piedmont + 50% Lebanese_Muslim @ 2,869
10 50% Basilicata + 50% Malta @ 2,888

Using 3 populations approximation
1 33% Tuscan + 33% Tuscan + 33% Nusayri @ 2,437
2 33% Tuscan + 33% Tuscan + 33% Lebanese_Muslim @ 2,510
3 33% Basilicata + 33% Basilicata + 33% Malta @ 2,599
4 33% Romagna + 33% Romagna + 33% Lebanese_Muslim @ 2,600
5 33% Romagna + 33% Romagna + 33% Nusayri @ 2,674
6 33% Basilicata + 33% Abruzzo + 33% Malta @ 2,735
7 33% Malta + 33% Greek_Andros_Island + 33% West_Sicilian @ 2,746
8 33% Tuscany + 33% Tuscany + 33% Lebanese_Druze @ 2,840
9 33% Romagna + 33% Romagna + 33% Syrian @ 2,874
10 33% Greek_Symi_Island + 33% Sephardic_Jewish + 33% Friuli-VG @ 2,908

Using 4 populations approximation
1 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Palestinian @ 2,414
2 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Sephardic_Jewish + 25% Swiss_German @ 2,510
3 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Malta @ 2,568
4 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Jordanian @ 2,617
5 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Ashkenazi @ 2,619
6 25% Malta + 25% Malta + 25% Greek_Andros_Island + 25% Marche @ 2,667
7 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Abruzzo + 25% Malta @ 2,676
8 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Sephardic_Jewish + 25% Swiss_French @ 2,730
9 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Syrian @ 2,737
10 25% Malta + 25% Malta + 25% Greek_Andros_Island + 25% Umbria @ 2,750
 
I'm not sure I'm an Ancient Iapygian,
maybe I’m, ... I speculate, ... I look for clues :)


If you have close matches with the ancient Dalmatian samples , then you should have matches with the Iapygian , as the Iapygian lived initially North-East of the Dalmatians
 
The Viking sample VK398 which is branch T1a2 appears in Yfull


 
Check in Admixturestudio this file for other calcs.

Components %
North_Atlantic 20,22
Baltic 7,68
West_Med 19,16
West_Asian 13,86
East_Med 29,90
Red_Sea 6,73
South_Asian 0,00
East_Asian 0,00
Siberian 0,70
Amerindian 0,00
Oceanian 0,00
Northeast_African 0,11
Sub-Saharan 1,64



Mixed Mode:
1 50,39% Lebanese_Christian + 49,61% AostaValley @ 1,948
2 50,39% AostaValley + 49,61% Lebanese_Christian @ 1,978
3 94,92% Basilicata + 5,08% Yemenite_Jewish @ 2,059
4 94,92% Basilicata + 5,08% Saudi @ 2,140
5 62,11% Cyprian + 37,89% French @ 2,151
6 62,11% Greek_Cypriot + 37,89% French @ 2,151
7 94,14% Basilicata + 5,86% Egyptian @ 2,253
8 52,73% Nusayri + 47,27% Swiss_Italian @ 2,287
9 94,14% Basilicata + 5,86% Bedouin @ 2,312
10 93,36% Basilicata + 6,64% Palestinian @ 2,313

Least-squares method.

Using 1 populations approximation
1 100% Basilicata @ 2,946
2 100% Abruzzo @ 3,755
3 100% Molise @ 3,829
4 100% Campania @ 4,104
5 100% Apulia @ 4,385
6 100% Sicily @ 4,435
7 100% Malta @ 4,828
8 100% Greek_Andros_Island @ 4,841
9 100% East_Sicilian @ 4,940
10 100% West_Sicilian @ 5,412

Using 2 populations approximation
1 50% Lebanese_Christian + 50% AostaValley @ 1,950
2 50% Lebanese_Muslim + 50% Swiss_Italian @ 2,622
3 50% Nusayri + 50% Swiss_Italian @ 2,623
4 50% Samaritan + 50% AostaValley @ 2,752
5 50% Lebanese_Muslim + 50% Swiss-Italian @ 2,754
6 50% Piedmont + 50% Nusayri @ 2,767
7 50% Sephardic_Jewish + 50% Greek_Central-Macedonia @ 2,816
8 50% Lombardy + 50% Nusayri @ 2,845
9 50% Piedmont + 50% Lebanese_Muslim @ 2,869
10 50% Basilicata + 50% Malta @ 2,888

Using 3 populations approximation
1 33% Tuscan + 33% Tuscan + 33% Nusayri @ 2,437
2 33% Tuscan + 33% Tuscan + 33% Lebanese_Muslim @ 2,510
3 33% Basilicata + 33% Basilicata + 33% Malta @ 2,599
4 33% Romagna + 33% Romagna + 33% Lebanese_Muslim @ 2,600
5 33% Romagna + 33% Romagna + 33% Nusayri @ 2,674
6 33% Basilicata + 33% Abruzzo + 33% Malta @ 2,735
7 33% Malta + 33% Greek_Andros_Island + 33% West_Sicilian @ 2,746
8 33% Tuscany + 33% Tuscany + 33% Lebanese_Druze @ 2,840
9 33% Romagna + 33% Romagna + 33% Syrian @ 2,874
10 33% Greek_Symi_Island + 33% Sephardic_Jewish + 33% Friuli-VG @ 2,908

Using 4 populations approximation
1 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Palestinian @ 2,414
2 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Sephardic_Jewish + 25% Swiss_German @ 2,510
3 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Malta @ 2,568
4 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Jordanian @ 2,617
5 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Ashkenazi @ 2,619
6 25% Malta + 25% Malta + 25% Greek_Andros_Island + 25% Marche @ 2,667
7 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Abruzzo + 25% Malta @ 2,676
8 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Sephardic_Jewish + 25% Swiss_French @ 2,730
9 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Syrian @ 2,737
10 25% Malta + 25% Malta + 25% Greek_Andros_Island + 25% Umbria @ 2,750



Thanks lukas (y)
Cool results for him:cool-v:
 
From the supplement:

https://static-content.springer.com...8/MediaObjects/41586_2020_2688_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

Öland, Sweden
(Prepared by Helene Wilhelmson, Sydsvensk arkeologi AB, Kristianstad, and Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Lund University)

Many human remains from the late Iron Age (400-1050 CE) have been excavated from burials and other contexts on the island of Öland in the Baltic Sea. Throughout the period the burials are both cremations as well as inhumations. There is considerable variation in inhumation burial form (pit coffin, stone cist, etc.) during the VA76–80. The uncremated human remains from burials (and other contexts) were recently studied using an interdisciplinary bioarchaeological perspective80 integrating new radiocarbon dates for many graves. The individuals studied for aDNA here are the majority of the late Iron Age population discussed in that study.

The most recent dietary isotope analysis of human remains, show a great individual variation in diet5 supporting the archaeozoological finds and point towards a population with highly varied subsistence strategies. First generation migration to Öland was investigated through 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O isotopes and the results were interpreted to show extensive immigration to the island with 68% non-local individuals in the late Iron Age. The immigrants appear to be both regional and interregional. The greater variation in individual diet could not be concluded to correlate to provenance of an individual. The people living in Öland during the late Iron Age have therefore been interpreted as a population of mixed provenance resulting in a creolized society with a combination of non-local and local traditions for burial and subsistence practices80.

The 29 individuals we sampled were included in the study of Wilhelmson80 and consist of all types of burials. They are from 20 sites in Öland, excavated on separate occasions between 1931 and 1975. About half of the individuals (n=15) are dated by 14C and the rest are dated by typology. The burials are inhumations of varied type. They have different orientations (east-west, north-south or southnorth), feature different architecture (lime stone cists, pits, coffins, full boat burial), and include single as well as multiple burials in one grave. Two more skeletons sampled in this study (id 1099, 1052) are from the early Iron Age. The table shown below presents details of the selected individuals.

EfQC9Gc.png

lbNteU3.png


This ancient sample was added to YFull:
L283: J-Z1043>Z8424>Y36972

Google maps of the Island: https://www.google.com/maps/place/Ö...a8d953c2ace7c35!8m2!3d56.6648948!4d16.6364773
Location of find:
https://www.google.com/maps/place/3...a00fef5b28d1240!8m2!3d56.7460808!4d16.7268612

This particular sample seems to be classified as "local". Albeit the finds on the island are a mix between local and nonlocal.

The samples from the island are dated (400-1050 CE).

Not too sure about VK346.
 

So is their "Swedish-like" basically Baltic IE-like in fact? Is that based on IA Swedish samples? I wonder if those were really Germanic Scandinavians, not Baltic people who once lived on the other side of the sea, too, and Germanic tribes were actually and mostly living more to the west at that time (Denmark, Norway, Western Sweden, Northern Germany and Poland).
 
qj3DZo3.png


Fwiw, my grandfather's surname is a Latinized version of a Norman surname, first found in Burgundy. His family was also well-to-do, they had wealth inherited back from generations. I wonder if the "Yamnaya Bulgaria" component could be a proxy for some Scandinavian/French/Norman admixture. It could also help explain why I am pulled "North" and "East" of the Mediterraeanean_C6 sample average. Just a theory.

Barese has old-French and Norman linguistic influences: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bari_dialect
 
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xWEGIMG.png


nSfdFEL.png


Much different results when utilizing the samples as individuals. Only 534 and 535 coming out with some North African admixture, but have a larger share of Eastern Mediterranean. 536 comes with Mediterranean, with some Mycenaean. 537 is mostly Mediterranean, with some Eastern Mediterranean. Finally 538 mostly gets Balkan_BA.
 
A new paper just came out: Population genomics of the Viking world (Margaryan et al 2020)

Abstract

The maritime expansion of Scandinavian populations during the Viking Age (about AD 750–1050) was a far-flung transformation in world history. Here we sequenced the genomes of 442 humans from archaeological sites across Europe and Greenland (to a median depth of about 1×) to understand the global influence of this expansion. We find the Viking period involved gene flow into Scandinavia from the south and east. We observe genetic structure within Scandinavia, with diversity hotspots in the south and restricted gene flow within Scandinavia. We find evidence for a major influx of Danish ancestry into England; a Swedish influx into the Baltic; and Norwegian influx into Ireland, Iceland and Greenland. Additionally, we see substantial ancestry from elsewhere in Europe entering Scandinavia during the Viking Age. Our ancient DNA analysis also revealed that a Viking expedition included close family members. By comparing with modern populations, we find that pigmentation-associated loci have undergone strong population differentiation during the past millennium, and trace positively selected loci—including the lactase-persistence allele of LCT and alleles of ANKA that are associated with the immune response—in detail. We conclude that the Viking diaspora was characterized by substantial transregional engagement: distinct populations influenced the genomic makeup of different regions of Europe, and Scandinavia experienced increased contact with the rest of the continent.

Here is the supplementary information (178 pages). There are also Excel tables in supplements. I haven't read anything yet.

"The 442 ancient individuals were divided into five broad categories (Figure 1 in the main text) and the majority (n=376) were sequenced to between 0.1 and 11X average depth of coverage. The data set includes Bronze Age (n=2) and Iron Age (n=10) individuals from Scandinavia; early VA (n=43)individuals from Estonia (n=34), Denmark (n=6), and Sweden (n=3); ancient individuals associated with Norse culture from Greenland (n=23), VA individuals from Denmark (n=78), the Faroe Islands(n=1), Iceland (n=17), Ireland (n=4), Norway (n=29), Poland (n=8), Russia (n=33), Sweden (n=118),the Isle of Man (n=1), Scotland (n=8), England (n=32), Wales (n=1), and Ukraine (n=3), as well as individuals from the medieval and early modern periods from the Faroe Islands (n=16), Italy (n=5),Norway (n=7), Poland (n=2), and Ukraine (n=1). The VA individuals were supplemented with published genomes from Sigtuna, Sweden (n=21, samples VK557-VK578)35, and Iceland."

Map based on Germanics vs Celtic (Eurogenes)
- above Celtic
- middle Germanic (close to Anglo-Saxons/ Elb-Germans), gross of the Vikings
- beneath Baltic/ NE Europe
- besides Romance/Italic

As known this is build around latest (what's in a name) drift. Regarding Germanics what I can see is that Elb-Germanic (the Bavarian samples) and the Saxon samples are representing the core Germanic space. We as North Dutch are in that space: Chauken/ North Sea amalgam with a little touch Bronze Age population (substrate).


But see Jutland IA, on the border of the Celtic space, Cimbri? How come?


The rest of the Celtic-Viking space is known: the Orkney samples were not Scandic, and Iceland and Faroe contain mixes. All clear.


The 'Baltic' or may be better NE Europe corner is also clear this also showed up in Sigtuna.


What really is interesting is the 'Romance' sphere with Swede Karda VA and some DNK Langeland samples. They seem to have a Italic or even a Greece mixture.




8r5n9d7pzy.38.56.png
 
Foggia VK535 - VK537
Dodecad K12 and K13 coordinates

Code:
VK535_Dod_K12,8.59,0.00,5.60,1.09,27.21,14.69,0.00,0.80,12.43,0.00,28.19,1.39
VK537_Dod_K12,5.21,0.93,4.78,0.00,26.19,16.86,0.95,0.70,11.33,0.35,31.41,1.30

Code:
VK535_Dod_K13,0.00,0.44,2.74,0.00,16.55,1.00,36.68,0.83,0.00,22.13,18.61,0.18,0.84
VK537_Dod_K13,1.13,0.00,2.14,0.00,16.99,0.50,35.10,0.77,0.00,21.45,20.99,0.17,0.76


... Credit to Lukas for the Raw-Data, (...thank me for the coordinates above)

Dod K12:
modern
YtxcCHR.jpg


ancient
Tki2OVd.jpg


Maciano 2way ancient alternative:
r6mPjCQ.jpg

https://www.eupedia.com/forum/threa...(modal)-for-all-ancient-European-populations!
 
Foggia VK535 - VK537
Dodecad K12 and K13 coordinates

Code:
VK535_Dod_K12,8.59,0.00,5.60,1.09,27.21,14.69,0.00,0.80,12.43,0.00,28.19,1.39
VK537_Dod_K12,5.21,0.93,4.78,0.00,26.19,16.86,0.95,0.70,11.33,0.35,31.41,1.30

Code:
VK535_Dod_K13,0.00,0.44,2.74,0.00,16.55,1.00,36.68,0.83,0.00,22.13,18.61,0.18,0.84
VK537_Dod_K13,1.13,0.00,2.14,0.00,16.99,0.50,35.10,0.77,0.00,21.45,20.99,0.17,0.76


... Credit to Lukas for the Raw-Data, (...thank me for the coordinates above)

Dod K12:
modern
YtxcCHR.jpg


ancient
Tki2OVd.jpg


Maciano 2way ancient alternative:
r6mPjCQ.jpg

https://www.eupedia.com/forum/threa...(modal)-for-all-ancient-European-populations!


what about our T1a2 branch Viking .....................not very far in Yfull from myself ( and you )

Sample: VK398 / Sweden_Skara 231
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: T-BY215080
mtDNA: H1b1-T16362C
 

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