Population genomics of the Viking world (Margaryan et al 2020)

@Jovialis
Thanks for some docs I had not seen.
I have some doubt sometimes concerning admixture charts. That said, some increase in "foreign" DNA in far North is sensible by time; Now, a nb 11 sample for a country is too low, if it is supposed to represent all regions of a vaste country, spite it's sufficient for an homogenous region.
 
Maciamo, what is the population labelled TSI in the 6th diagram - lower far right

Tuscans from Italy.


Weren't the Italians samples from medieval Foggia? Southern Italy is where the Normans had territory. TSI could just be a proxy for that. TSI is usually used as a generic Italian population in DNA studies.


TSI is Tuscans from Italy. It's used also in Raveane, and all individuals from TSI join one of northern-central clusters of Italy.
 
Tuscans from Italy.
TSI is Tuscans from Italy. It's used also in Raveane, and all individuals from TSI join one of northern-central clusters of Italy.
Indeed, South Italian or Sicilian samples would probably be better samples to use. Those are the populations the Normans interacted with.
 
Indeed, South Italian or Sicilian samples would probably be better samples to use. Those are the populations the Normans interacted with.


I have given up expecting completely accurate genetic studies.
 
@Jovialis

Do you have any info , more than this for .......

[h=3]Varnhem ( 950 yBP - Viking Age )[/h]VK398 ( 950 ± 100 yBP )

Y-DNA: T1a2
mtDNA: H1b1+16362
 
@Jovialis

Do you have any info , more than this for .......

[h=3]Varnhem ( 950 yBP - Viking Age )[/h]VK398 ( 950 ± 100 yBP )

Y-DNA: T1a2
mtDNA: H1b1+16362
Unfortunately the BAM files do not process into raw data with the tools I am using.
 
Weren't the Italians samples from medieval Foggia? Southern Italy is where the Normans had territory. TSI could just be a proxy for that. TSI is usually used as a generic Italian population in DNA studies.
Foggia, yes. But like you mentioned Tuscanese are usually used as a generic Italian population. They mention a type of Southern European and "Eastern" shift in the Viking Age-Scandinavians in the paper, so I guess the Tuscanese and the Finnish are included as the best proxies for those respectively. Sidenote: I must say, if that's the case, I find it a bit funny how they insist on labelling the Finnish/Baltic shift in such exotic terms.
 
@Jovialis
Do you have any info , more than this for .......
Varnhem ( 950 yBP - Viking Age )
VK398 ( 950 ± 100 yBP )
Y-DNA: T1a2
mtDNA: H1b1+16362
VK17 mtDNA U5a2a1b - y T1a1a

I know people with that exact mtDNA from Benevento:

... and R850 (650 BC Latin Tribe Ardea) is also y T1a1a according to MTA !

JJlJJSD.jpg
 
Last edited:
@Jovialis

Do you have any info , more than this for .......

Varnhem ( 950 yBP - Viking Age )

VK398 ( 950 ± 100 yBP )

Y-DNA: T1a2
mtDNA: H1b1+16362


Varnhem
Västergötlands Museum IM16-107025, RAÄ 60, Västergötland, Sweden (Prepared by Maria Vretemark, Västergötlands Museum)


Varnhem in the central part of Västergötland is well known for its large church with the adjacent ruins of a Cistercian abbey. Less attention has been paid to the history of Varnhem before the abbey was founded in the middle of the 12th century CE. In order to learn more about this earlier period, the Museum of Västergötland started an archaeological research project in 2005 named ‘Varnhem – innan munkarna kom’ (Varnhem – before the monks arrived). The archaeological excavations revealed a large settlement area and a VA church with a surrounding churchyard. Thick cultural layers, foundations of buildings, a church ruin, and hundreds of Christian VA graves were discovered. All of this presents an image of a prominent farmstead with roots going back into the Iron Age.


Varnhem is situated in an area with a great density of prehistoric sites. Graves and settlements dating from all periods are found here. Fertile soil, rich pasture and meadowland for harvesting and grazing, together with woodlands and lakes provided the right conditions for the emergence of a strong wealthy community. Among the rich archaeological finds discovered in the area, the large silver treasure found in 1873 deserves particular mention. This VA hoard consists of 476 silver coins from the early 11th century CE. Most of the coins are Anglo-Saxon and they point to contact with the west. Rune stones in the region bear witness to men killed in England. Several rune inscriptions also mention ‘thegnar’ - a title of a follower of the Danish kings Sven Forkbeard and Cnut the Great, and as such a member of the English/Danish royal forces in England after the conquest in 1015 CE and the subsequent Danish occupation. Some of these thegnar obviously came from Västergötland, a region that had long been part of the Danish sphere of influence. The most successful Viking soldiers might have received a share of the taxes known as the Danegeld, which was paid in silver coins. They returned home after their service ended, and this could explain how the large number of Anglo-Saxon silver coins ended up in Varnhem.


The presence of a large Iron Age farmstead was confirmed through the discovery of the remains of houses, hearths, trenches, pits and postholes, along with pottery, animal bones, and other artefacts. A series of radiocarbon dates indicated that the site had been continuously settled for a thousand years, from the Roman Iron Age to the early medieval period. This was most likely an aristocratic manor. A church, built at the expense of the landowner, was included as one of the buildings on the prominent farm.

In past decades, remains of early churches and early Christian burial grounds have emerged in several places in central parts of Västergötland. The oldest churches in this region have been dated to the period around the year 1000 CE. They were privately built farm churches, predating the centralised church organisation of the 12th century with its system of parish churches based on a territorial division of the landscape. The foundations of this private church were excavated as part of the archaeological project at Varnhem (Extended Data Fig. 1d). The first church in Varnhem was built in the late 10th century CE. It was a small wooden church. Sometime during the period 1030-1050 CE the wooden church was replaced by a larger church built of locally quarried limestone. This church was probably one of the first stone buildings in Sweden.


Surrounding the foundations of the church in Varnhem, there is an extensive (nearly 4000 m2) Christian burial place containing at least 2000 graves and perhaps as many as 3000. Approximately 350 graves have been excavated so far and a well-preserved assemblage of human bones has been recovered for osteological analysis. The rest of the graves remain untouched under the grass of the park. The graves at Varnhem exhibit signs of a socially stratified society. Members of the family that owned the magnate’s farm were buried closest to the church. This is indicated by the presence of limestone coffins. Further away from the church, the dead had been interred in wooden coffins or in simpler graves without a coffin. The social division of the churchyard is also reflected in the state of health that can be observed in the skeletons. There was also a division by gender. Men were buried to the south of the church and women to the north. The dating of the graves is interesting. The burial ground at Varnhem was used continuously for Christian burials from the first half of the 10th century CE to the end of the 12th century, a period of 250-300 years. Christianity was obviously established in the area by the middle of the 10th century CE at the latest71.




Page 30 of the Supplementary.

https://static-content.springer.com...8/MediaObjects/41586_2020_2688_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
 
Weren't the Italians samples from medieval Foggia? Southern Italy is where the Normans had territory. TSI could just be a proxy for that. TSI is usually used as a generic Italian population in DNA studies.


1.2.2.14. Italy
(Prepared by Gabriele Scorrano, University of Copenhagen, Enrico Cappellini University of Copenhagen, Pasquale Favia, University of Foggia, and Italo M. Muntoni, Soprintendenza Archeologia)


San Lorenzo in Carminiano, Foggia
The medieval settlement of San Lorenzo in Carminiano (then Carmignano) was the main village in northern Apulia between the late Middle Ages and the modern period. It is located in the central area of the Tavoliere delle Puglie plain, just outside the city of Foggia. The settlement had three subdivisions, bounded by ditches—a northern trapezoidal one (enclosure I), probably surrounded by walls and extending over seven hectares and dating to c. 13th-16th centuries CE; another in the northwestern position (enclosure II), which is smaller in size and has a half-circular morphology; and a third southern one (enclosure III), which is elliptical and very broad (up to 15 ha). In the site only a small church dedicated to San Lorenzo has been found. Outside the church, along the bottom wall, various paving slabs have been discovered, both in cobwebs (USR 932-841) covered with a combustion ground, in tessellato, with stone tiles and brick sections and finally a wider lacer with brick remains157. Some post holes have also been found and they may perhaps refer to a late medieval stage. The excavation in the area in front of the church identified at least four phases: the first three referring to the Middle Ages, the latter probably to the 17th-18th century CE157. The oldest traces of a funeral attendance are represented by a simple burial in the ground (t.2), hosting three individuals.
Samples used for DNA analysis:

VK534 Italy_Foggia-869
VK535 Italy_Foggia-891


Cancarro, Troia, Foggia
The church of Cancarro is situated 3.5 km southwest of Troia, at 430 m ASL. The city of Troia was built on the ruins of the Roman town of Aecae, which occupied a strategic position on the Via Traiana. The church was used between the 11th and the 13th centuries CE158. Next to the church archaeologists unearthed a cemetery with 54 well-preserved burials, often overlying each other. Two graves held two individuals and five pits were ossuaries158. A minimum of 79 skeletons, mainly women, were confidently identified from reused graves158. Based on artifacts, the cemetery was used between the late 11th century CE (Norman Age) and the second half of the 13th century CE (Swabian-Angevin Age)158.
Samples used for DNA analysis:

VK536 Italy_Foggia-1240
VK537 Italy_Foggia-1248
VK538 Italy_Foggia-1249


Page 73 of the Supplementary

https://static-content.springer.com...8/MediaObjects/41586_2020_2688_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
 
Hi I will prepare some Foggia today:) I'm curious what it be.
 
Great, could you make coordinates for Dodecad K7b?

VK535 Italy_Foggia-891

Whole file:) Check it out where you want to.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1H9v5MiUqDFE9v6WwH9CzrobfDE54_Jjq/view?usp=sharing

K13 extended

Components %
North_Atlantic 17,07
Baltic 8,36
West_Med 24,98
West_Asian 14,34
East_Med 23,80
Red_Sea 5,71
South_Asian 2,03
East_Asian 1,00
Siberian 0,00
Amerindian 0,00
Oceanian 0,53
Northeast_African 1,03
Sub-Saharan 1,15



Least-squares method.

Using 1 populations approximation
1 100% Apulia @ 7,226
2 100% Central_Greek @ 7,333
3 100% East_Sicilian @ 7,463
4 100% Sicily @ 7,503
5 100% Basilicata @ 7,693
6 100% West_Sicilian @ 7,797
7 100% Greek_Peloponnese @ 7,814
8 100% Molise @ 7,883
9 100% Abruzzo @ 8,012
10 100% Campania @ 8,692

Using 2 populations approximation
1 50% Sicily + 50% Greek_Eastern-Macedonia @ 5,795
2 50% Sicily + 50% Greek_Peloponnese @ 5,905
3 50% Turk_Cypriot + 50% Piedmont @ 6,054
4 50% Greek_Chios + 50% FrenchCorsica @ 6,069
5 50% West_Sicilian + 50% Greek_Peloponnese @ 6,110
6 50% Greek_Chios + 50% Tuscany @ 6,136
7 50% Malta + 50% Greek_Eastern-Macedonia @ 6,152
8 50% Sicily + 50% Torbeshi_North-Macedonia-East @ 6,238
9 50% Veneto + 50% Turk_Cypriot @ 6,244
10 50% Greek_Eastern-Macedonia + 50% Calabria @ 6,287
 
VK535 Italy_Foggia-891

Whole file:) Check it out where you want to.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1H9v5MiUqDFE9v6WwH9CzrobfDE54_Jjq/view?usp=sharing

K13 extended

Components %
North_Atlantic 17,07
Baltic 8,36
West_Med 24,98
West_Asian 14,34
East_Med 23,80
Red_Sea 5,71
South_Asian 2,03
East_Asian 1,00
Siberian 0,00
Amerindian 0,00
Oceanian 0,53
Northeast_African 1,03
Sub-Saharan 1,15



Least-squares method.

Using 1 populations approximation
1 100% Apulia @ 7,226
2 100% Central_Greek @ 7,333
3 100% East_Sicilian @ 7,463
4 100% Sicily @ 7,503
5 100% Basilicata @ 7,693
6 100% West_Sicilian @ 7,797
7 100% Greek_Peloponnese @ 7,814
8 100% Molise @ 7,883
9 100% Abruzzo @ 8,012
10 100% Campania @ 8,692

Using 2 populations approximation
1 50% Sicily + 50% Greek_Eastern-Macedonia @ 5,795
2 50% Sicily + 50% Greek_Peloponnese @ 5,905
3 50% Turk_Cypriot + 50% Piedmont @ 6,054
4 50% Greek_Chios + 50% FrenchCorsica @ 6,069
5 50% West_Sicilian + 50% Greek_Peloponnese @ 6,110
6 50% Greek_Chios + 50% Tuscany @ 6,136
7 50% Malta + 50% Greek_Eastern-Macedonia @ 6,152
8 50% Sicily + 50% Torbeshi_North-Macedonia-East @ 6,238
9 50% Veneto + 50% Turk_Cypriot @ 6,244
10 50% Greek_Eastern-Macedonia + 50% Calabria @ 6,287


looks south european to me ( close to apulia) :)
great work lukas (y)
kudos:cool-v:
 
o6z2C8M.png


xHk6TdD.png


Hmm, some pretty striking difference between the sample and I, notably the 17.8% North African. I am Pugliese as well, but from the province of Bari. I wonder if this person had some connection with the area of Lucera, in the province of Foggia. Which was where many of the Moors were deported to, before being sacked by the Christians.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim_settlement_of_Lucera
 
o6z2C8M.png


xHk6TdD.png


Hmm, some pretty striking difference between the sample and I, notably the 17.8% North African. I am Pugliese as well, but from the province of Bari. I wonder if this person had some connection with the area of Lucera, in the province of Foggia. Which was where many of the Moors were deported to, before being sacked by the Christians.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim_settlement_of_Lucera


you might have a point ( about lucera) :)
personaly for me would be more interesting to see
the earlier age foggia samples :unsure:
VK536 Italy_Foggia-1240
VK537 Italy_Foggia-1248
VK538 Italy_Foggia-1249

 
you might have a point ( about lucera) :)
personaly for me would be more interesting to see
the earlier age foggia samples :unsure:
VK536 Italy_Foggia-1240
VK537 Italy_Foggia-1248
VK538 Italy_Foggia-1249


Indeed,

@Lukas, how were you able to process it? I tried with WGSExtract, but kept getting an error. If possible, could you make raw data files for these samples as well? Thanks!
 
Indeed,

@Lukas, how were you able to process it? I tried with WGSExtract, but kept getting an error. If possible, could you make raw data files for these samples as well? Thanks!
Try with older version...
 

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