Uruk and the Emergence of Civilization-Patrick Wyman

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"For much of the fourth millennium BC, Uruk was the largest city in the most urbanized region of the world. It had tens of thousands of inhabitants. Enormous monumental buildings like temples and palaces studded the city’s landscape. A priest-king ruled the city with the help of powerful households, nobles, and religious officials. This was the first state in the world as we understand it, a complex political entity centered on the city-state. It was also almost certainly the birthplace of writing, which emerged as an administrative tool to help keep track of the riches oozing through Uruk."

"
Scholars have spent much of the past century or so trying to understand something that goes by the current name of the “Uruk Phenomenon.” This was a multifaceted expansion outward from southern Mesopotamia, centered on Uruk, that stretched east and north for a considerable distance. Mesopotamian migrants poured into what’s now western Iran. Trade routes spread in every direction, bringing in highly sought-after luxury items like gold, timber, and precious stones from hundreds or thousands of miles away. Uruk and Uruk-influenced material can be found as far away as the North Caucasus Mountains, on the borders of the Eurasian steppe. It was some combination of colonization movement, proto-imperial takeover, ideological ferment, and mercantile enterprise."

It set the model for all empires to come.
 
We really need some archaic DNA from that area of Iraq.
 
Great topic!!! It is not clear why no one is discussing. After all, there are many mysteries there ... For example, Ur of the Chaldees is apparently not a biblical anachronism, but evidence of the Khalibs / Chaldees from Anatolia, Mount Taurus ... Where metallurgy was born back in 5200 BC. in the vicinity of Mersin (Tarsus district). Around this time, Eridu, the city of Enki / EA / Oannes, was born ... But, before 4000 BC. It's still Ubaid time! And the expansion of Uruk, about which no one really writes anything, mysteriously precedes the appearance of the mysterious Sumerians. The expansion of Uruk is associated with the appearance of Maykop and the formation of the Indo-European (IE) community in the steppes between the Caspian and the Black Seas. The expansion of Uruk is also associated with the decline of the Balkan Metallurgical Province. At this time, camels and donkeys appear in the Balkans! So who are they, the "people of Uruk"??


The mystery of the haplogroup R1b (“Erbins”), whose carriers founded a community in the steppes of IE, has long been discussed in the literature. And long before its formation, back in 4000 BC, the Erbins marched along the coast of Africa, and penetrated into Europe through Gibraltar, leaving behind pre-dynastic Egypt, traces in Kenya (R1b-V88) and the Iberians of Spain. Indeed, we were faced with an ethnos that had incredible organizing power. But where did they come from? All this rests on the mystery of the unknown civilization of Asia Minor, which began to conquer the Old World even before the IE expansion. Yes, and the IE expansion itself is also obliged to the carriers of the haplogroup R1b!
 
Here is an unknown history from 5500 BC to 3500 BC, from the Black Sea Flood to the formation of the IE community, which we need to explore as archaeologists! The history of Uranus and Saturn, Il and Anu etc. are waiting for their Schliemanns and Evans here ... The key to the puzzle is the ethnic group, the carrier of the haplogroup R1b, who immediately after the flood created a new patrilocal society, created a new culture, discovered metallurgy and were the forerunners of IE expansion, and expansion of Uruk. This society, according to the assumptions, had an agglutinative language, with an ergative system. These are the characteristics of collectives engaged in professional activities, in contrast to the hunters and gatherers of the surrounding steppes.
 
The Birth of Civilisation - Rise of Uruk (6500 BC to 3200 BC) - nice Lecture about Uruk

You Tube aowNRbEdqPQ
 
The Birth of Civilisation - Rise of Uruk (6500 BC to 3200 BC) - nice Lecture about Uruk

You Tube aowNRbEdqPQ

I think you are running fast and straight away. Y-R1b passed into Iberia from Africa? Some subclades maybe and this stays to be proved. The first Y-R1b-s had surely more sensibly their origin in Central Asia, and nothing todate proves they (ot rather their heirs) were the first I-E speakers (even if the contrary is not proved either). We need more before to do this ind of short-cut statements.
 
this KIND of ...
 
BTW hae somebody heard of temples erected in southeastern present day Turkey, closed to Syria, around 9000 BC, BEFORE AGRICULTURE!!! At Göbekli Tepe ("belly-like hill"?). Some mainstream theories could be contradicted...
 
BTW hae somebody heard of temples erected in southeastern present day Turkey, closed to Syria, around 9000 BC, BEFORE AGRICULTURE!!! At Göbekli Tepe ("belly-like hill"?). Some mainstream theories could be contradicted...

Yes, Göbekli Tepe has been called the oldest city, which appears to be a newer concept than the original “temple”.

see https://lens.idai.world/?url=/repository/eDAI-F_2020-2/eDAI-F_Clare.xml for signs of permanent settlement like remains of tool production and water collection.

The Wikipedia article is a good starter: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Göbekli_Tepe and there are lots of references to articles.

Not sure if it has anything to do with Uruk though…
 
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BTW hae somebody heard of temples erected in southeastern present day Turkey, closed to Syria, around 9000 BC, BEFORE AGRICULTURE!!! At Göbekli Tepe ("belly-like hill"?)
This is really interesting. It clearly shows that brain and ideas came first. As well as principles and moral codes.
Some mainstream theories could be contradicted...
Indeed, all the current "understanding" is overturned because of this.
 
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I think you are running fast and straight away. Y-R1b passed into Iberia from Africa? Some subclades maybe and this stays to be proved. The first Y-R1b-s had surely more sensibly their origin in Central Asia, and nothing todate proves they (ot rather their heirs) were the first I-E speakers (even if the contrary is not proved either). We need more before to do this ind of short-cut statements.

Nobody says that R1b are Indo-Europeans! It is only known that
1. R1b took part in the creation of the Indo-European community in the steppes between the Black and Caspian Seas.
2. European R1b does NOT contain Yamnaya Culture steppe markers.


The article "Genetic differentiation between upland and lowland populations shapes the Y-chromosomal landscape of West Asia" // Hum Genet (2017) 136:437–450 (researchgate.net/314493668) states that the European R-M269 does not come from the Yamnaya population. Apparently, R1b carriers came to Europe via Africa and Gibraltar before apparently even before the formation of the Yamnaya Culture (The Conquest of "Old Europe" and Central Europe (4200-2500 BCE)// .academia.edu/5965973). But is it possible that they came to Europe without "Yamnaya's Markers" during the second phase of migration (The Conquest of Western Europe (2500-1200 BCE)) from some isolated enclave not associated with the Yamnaya Culture?


That is, the European R1b could not come from Yamnaya Culture, but from some unknown enclave. Which may have been the source of R1b for the Yamnaya culture as well
 
That is, the European R1b could not come from Yamnaya Culture, but from some unknown enclave. Which may have been the source of R1b for the Yamnaya culture as well


We know the R1b phylogeny of Yamnaya, it's R-Z2103 specifically and modern Albanians and other Balkan people, as well as Armenians and other West Asians, carry it in significant numbers.
 
We know the R1b phylogeny of Yamnaya, it's R-Z2103 specifically and modern Albanians and other Balkan people, as well as Armenians and other West Asians, carry it in significant numbers.

R-Z2103 apparently does not exist among the Basques, the Irish and the inhabitants of England ... Then, it turns out that the article from Maciamo (.academia.edu/5965973) apparently indicates that the expansion of R1b ,"The Conquest of "Old Europe" and Central Europe (4200-2500 BCE)" and "The Conquest of Western Europe (2500-1200 BCE)", went not only in different times, but also in different ways!
 
R-Z2103 apparently does not exist among the Basques, the Irish and the inhabitants of England ... Then, it turns out that the article from Maciamo (.academia.edu/5965973) apparently indicates that the expansion of R1b ,"The Conquest of "Old Europe" and Central Europe (4200-2500 BCE)" and "The Conquest of Western Europe (2500-1200 BCE)", went not only in different times, but also in different ways!


But it exists in Yamnaya speakers, ie Albanians and Armenians.
 
Did R-M269 and R-Z2103 come to different parts of Europe at different times and by different routes?
 
Yes, Göbekli Tepe has been called the oldest city, which appears to be a newer concept than the original “temple”.

see https://lens.idai.world/?url=/repository/eDAI-F_2020-2/eDAI-F_Clare.xml for signs of permanent settlement like remains of tool production and water collection.

The Wikipedia article is a good starter: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Göbekli_Tepe and there are lots of references to articles.

Not sure if it has anything to do with Uruk though…

OK. Off topic, yes. I want not create a new thread, it's just to ask if somebody had clues and if a thread had been created I should have passed over it.
 
OK. Off topic, yes. I want not create a new thread, it's just to ask if somebody had clues and if a thread had been created I should have passed over it.

This topic deserves to be opened separately! At least it is known that the beginnings of trade can be found already in GT: hundreds of obsidian knives found there were produced and delivered over 500-700 km. It is clear that no one will drag them there just like that, most likely in exchange for grain, which the priests took from the gatherers. And the priests gave these knives to the collectors for harvesting in exchange for grain. Apparently, this was the world's first temple trade. That is the hypothesis.
 
What's interesting... Maikop arose along with the expansion of Uruk, if not earlier! At the same time, Uruk is distinguished by the poverty of the metal in the burials, in contrast to the rich Maykop. At the same time, there was NO metallurgy in Maykop itself. On the other hand, Maykop is a consequence of the collapse of the Balkan-Carpathian metallurgical province
 
And of course, one must ask the question - what initiated the expansion of Uruk? The answer must be sought in the fact that thanks to irrigated agriculture, Uruk has become a metropolis with a population of 80,000 people. Abundant harvests produced a huge population that had to be occupied. Next to the temples were workshops for the manufacture of ceramics and copper processing. There were a huge number of cloth spinners who needed wool. Therefore, we see Uruk donkeys and camels in the Balkans, and here we must look for the cause of the emergence of the Yamnaya culture. Already in Khvalynsk, woolly sheep were bred, where we see an abundance of merchants from the Caucasus with haplogroup J, who for some reason are marked in the literature with a very strange CHG marker - well, they were not hunters and gatherers !!! . The Yamnaya gave wool, the Balkans gave copper and, apparently, wool too. And it is unlikely that the expansion of Uruk can be explained by aridization, which supposedly the inhabitants of Uruk rushed to flee from the glorious Uruk for food in all directions. On the contrary, Uruk has become a World Factory, like modern China!
 

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