Southeast Europe: Neolithic to Modern days transition


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I put together a PCA map, which documents the autosomal profile of the released academic samples who are relevant to Southeast Europe.

This is the timeline of how your ancestors looked like from an autosomal POV during different time periods.
We are missing a lot of data still, but some assumptions could already be made loosely.

For example:
  1. Neolithic Greek Farmers had more Iran Neolithic/CHG ancestry than the equivalent in Southeast Europe, who generally had more WHG, like the profile of a typical Anatolian Farmer. You might also notice the Krepost Neolithic outlier from Southern Bulgaria, who also registers a CHG pull.
  2. The Chalcolithic comes with a slight, but visible, EHG pull for most. This might be indicative of early migrations from and exchanges with the North Pontic area. Note that there is even 1 Bulgarian outlier, who plots with moderns. Likely migrant from Ukraine.
  3. In East Hungary, Farmers are slightly pulled towards WHG instead, indicating that there weren't migrations up the Danube from the steppe yet.
  4. In Greece, Chalcolithic Farmers lose some Iran Neolithic/CHG share by plotting closer to the Balkan Neolithic Farmers.
  5. The Bronze Age comes with bigger autosomal transformations brought over by Yamnaya, who were roughly a 50/50 EHG/CHG split, but with also some Farmer residue. You can clearly distinguish the transformed/acculturated Farmers from the Yamnaya, who plot way North towards the steppe.
  6. The Iron Age sample from Bulgaria is a confirmed Thracian (we could assume more or less that she is representative for an average Thracian)
  7. Among the 7 Scythians from Moldova, 4 are supposed to be of local origin (i.e. Geto-Dacian). Their autosomal profile looks local and 2 of them who are males fall under the patrilineal E-CTS1273 (downstream from E-V13) and R-Z2106 (downstream from R-Z2103). Both are typical Southeast European subclades.
  8. Looking at the Bronze Age samples from Croatia, it seems plausible that if Illyrians lived around there in the Iron Age, they would at least plot within this group or at least a bit farther up to the North.
  9. Assuming that the Avar outliers from Szolad and Slavic Bohemia are representative of early Migration Period Slavs who settled in Romania, Moldova and then further West, South and all the way to Greece, it can be clearly noticed how most Balkan folk form a cline between the Iron/Bronze Age natives and the migrating Slavs.

I suggest looking at this PCA after having read about the archaeological background in the Balkans.
A nice summary is provided here:


Any feedback and criticism would be appreciated. Don't forget to zoom in.
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Great job !
Thank you for your comprehensive review! We are constantly overlooked and ignored by the Western researchers.
Who is represented in full orange circles? And are modern Greeks the light blue / grayish ones? Very neat-looking graphic btw.
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