Ottoman Empire (Balkans)

Western-led "Englightenment" was a curse for the region, it broke up the Ottoman empire into highly antagonizing fractures of nation states fighting in between them (Turkish nation state included) in a typical neo-colonial/neo-imperalist style of Anglo-inspired 'divide and conquer' and Russian/Panslavic expansionism (with all the disasters that it entailed).

For Greece, it robbed the ethnos of its real capital (Constantinople/Istanbul) and led to the obliteration/eradication of many traditional birthplaces of Hellenism since antiquity like Pontus, Asia Minor, and even the Levant and North Africa. The Greek ethnos entered the 20th century, a shadow of its former self in both size, economic prosperity and expanse.

Truly a disaster of unprecedent magnitude.



????
Enlightment is considered the era to open to all to learn sciences, a nd clear tranparent politics
early enlighment strts with Cromwell in England and the first effort for Democracy, although he become a kind of dictator him shelf
Beacon and Isaac newton and the science and logic above dogma,
Then moves to France with Descartes and all the philosophical movements even Revolution Francais.

Enlightment officialy strtas at 1715 AD
with seeds from 1650 around.
What has to do with the fall of Constantinoupolis?
 
WHAT IS ENLIGHTMENT?

Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung? by Immanuel Kant
 
Remove the Greek flag from your portrait.
it is obvious you are not Greek.

If the right to become artisan is compared with the obligation to give your first born is semantic to you

then the least you do IS TO REMOVE THE GREEK FLAG from your profile,
ANd do not put any other Balkan country Flag.


Ι think you should calm down, there are multiple readings of history.

The Greek ethnos persevered and grew in scope and prosperity during Ottoman times, compared to the absolute state it founds itself now as a neo-colonial vassal project of Western global dominance, that is a historical fact and an opinion shared by many.

I link to you an interesting interview/piece of Dimitris Kitsikis, that I have big respect for, to shed more light on this opinion (unfortunately only for Greek speakers).

 
Even sources from Ottoman Albania show both many Muslims and Christian Albanians despised the Turks as did others. But this thread is not about that but to debunk some myths . You also forgot devirshme apparently was abolished early from what I am reading.


Also Muslims in the Balkans are just former Christians, many of their ancestors converted because they were possibly worse off compared to other Christians so they did it to enjoy more rights.

Kelmendi are some I know that were rebellious and never converted and fought against Ottomans and even on Mahmut Begollis side. But they lived in mountains also.

What? officialy the last is 1705 AD

but there is a qitap (ottoman papper) at 1738 for 50 kids at upper Makedonia, when the revolt of Meintanis happens to prevent it,
Kasomoulis writes about it


offcourse the onta for atzami-oglan If I am not wrong exist till 1755,
to the last I am not sure, there is chance to be wrong
 
Ι think you should calm down, there are multiple readings of history.

The Greek ethnos persevered and grew in scope and prosperity during Ottoman times, compared to the absolute state it founds itself now as a neo-colonial vassal project of Western global dominance, that is a historical fact and an opinion shared by many.

I link to you an interesting interview/piece of Dimitris Kitsikis, that I have big respect for, to shed more light on this opinion (unfortunately only for Greek speakers).



listen what he says,
Renaissance is a bad thing that damaged Romiosyne,

Really the kids gathering did not hurt Romioi, but Reaissance did?
Why? and how?
Because it prevent the dogma on state? or because it broke the authoritarian rules in arts?
Maybe because gave humans free expression away from the tabboo of east Christianiity?

Today there are 4 kind of Romioi,
1 the Patriarch, which is a Turk citizen, and lives under the laws given to him from the times of Mohamet the defiler
2 The monastic states which live at a total authoritarian life,
3, the after kutsuk Kainartzi Romioi who follow Russian patriarchate,
4 The Greek archiepiscopal Orthodox Church.

Wanted or Not Romiosyne which in Greek means Byzantium, is ended at 1463 with fall of Trebizond.
Since then Romiosyne is druged to coma giving blood to feed the Ottomans to the point of an analogy from 4/1 become 1/1 at 1821 and 1/3 at 1920's

the myth of Bastatzis the Smyrna emperror who will awake and with his sword and upon his horse will enter Con/polis to restablish Romiosyne is a myth,

the hunt for eternal life in paradise, and the authoritarian rules to gain it destroyed byzantium.

Paliaologos at the fall had 700 Genovese, 1 Turk pasha as ally, but how many Romioi,
the same time only at Holy mountain should be 3-4 000 young and able Romioi trying to gain eternal life.
Think how much should be at all the monasteries.
 
listen what he says,

Maybe because gave humans free expression away from the tabboo of east Christianiity?


You choose the narrative of enlightenment born out of the lodges of the West, in opposition to the Christian faith. I respect your opinion but I disagree, the Greek ethnos suffered and continues to suffer in pursuit of these so-called ideals, on the contrary it always expanded and flourished under the guidance of the Christian faith, and that includes the Ottoman period also.

Today, Greece is a semi-functioning/semi-failed post-colonial nation-state that finds itself financially (and culturally) bankrupt every 50-80 years or so, with no international scope, no growth or prosperity and grim outlooks for the future for its children, a contracting organism that clings to an ideal of a glorious ancient past that has little relevance to its contemporary dilemmas of survival.

It's a sad state of affairs.
 
You choose the narrative of enlightenment born out of the lodges of the West, in opposition to the Christian faith. I respect your opinion but I disagree, the Greek ethnos suffered and continues to suffer in pursuit of these so-called ideals, on the contrary it always expanded and flourished under the guidance of the Christian faith, and that includes the Ottoman period also.

Today, Greece is a semi-functioning/semi-failed post-colonial nation-state that finds itself financially (and culturally) bankrupt every 50-80 years or so, with no international scope, no growth or prosperity and grim outlooks for the future for its children, a contracting organism that clings to an ideal of a glorious ancient past that has little relevance to its contemporary dilemmas of survival.

It's a sad state of affairs.

I choose the personal will to follow christianity,
and not the forced by state,
I choose the open mind that may accept christianity,
and not the Theocracatical view of state.
WE ARE GREEKS, WE ARE NOT IRANIANS,
OUR BIGGEST ENEMY IS THEOCRACY, NOT RELIGION,

and NO, modern Greek State and nation suffer for nation identity,
We still have the dilema of West or East Or God provide, etc, that had all last Byzantine emperrors.

ally with West? or stay stick with Theocracy? or turn the faith?

only today we are worse, we also have the alternative solution of Russian Orthodox influence which effect too strong on our political desicions.

NO if I can call you my Friend, Jesus told us to turn the other cheek if slapt, But he also ask the slave at the judge, WHY YOU SLAPT ME?

Besides deep inside me I am still a pagan from Makedonia mountains, distinguish divine powers and will.
Thank God, for the return of Philosophy from the West back to its homeland via Enlightment,
Thank god for return of democracy and peoples free speach instead of Byzantine Despotism back to its homeland.

and believe I have been more than 24 times to mt Athos, where byzantion still exist,
and the most wonderfull and brave souls I found were down at the desert.
and I respect them, all, I spend months there, learning discipline, but shelf discipline, not obey discipline,

That is our difference, a slave can be rich, but will always be a slave,
AND JESUS (If you are Rum as you say) DOES NOT WANT US SLAVES.

That is why i could spill my blood in battle for modern (sometimes corrupted Greece) but never for an absolutarian emperror or a Despot.
 
Christians did have rights in the Ottoman empire, the Christian Greeks were the artisan/entrepreneurial elite of Ottoman society and let's not discount the Phanariote crowd, essentially the bureaucratic ruling class of the empire, at some point even given the complete administration of vassal states such as Moldowallachia.

Greeks were under the protection, due to their high value, of the Ottoman establishment in Rumelia, served as officers and even diplomats in the Ottoman army, in comparison to other locals like Bulgarians who consisted more of the rural underclass of the region.

Of course, the bandits of Morea did not have rights, since they comprised mostly of sectarian thugs, pirates, hired guns and mercenary gangs.

The Klephts were sort of forced into that lifestyle given the extreme poverty of the region.You had a number of wealthy Greek families who along with the Ottoman beys taxed the peasants and this I'm sure contributed to their angst. In the Morea I believe the "hatred" for the Turks came from religious differences which may not have been as true in Rumeli or the North. Don't forget it was the Brigands led by folks like Mavromichaelis and Kolokotronis (who had a number of Brigands under his leadership) were responsible for the independence of the Morea.
 
Christians did have rights in the Ottoman empire, the Christian Greeks were the artisan/entrepreneurial elite of Ottoman society and let's not discount the Phanariote crowd, essentially the bureaucratic ruling class of the empire, at some point even given the complete administration of vassal states such as Moldowallachia.

Greeks were under the protection, due to their high value, of the Ottoman establishment in Rumelia, served as officers and even diplomats in the Ottoman army, in comparison to other locals like Bulgarians who consisted more of the rural underclass of the region.

Of course, the bandits of Morea did not have rights, since they comprised mostly of sectarian thugs, pirates, hired guns and mercenary gangs.

Yes, the Christians had so many rights under the Ottomans. Tell that to the Armenians against whom they committed a genocide.

You're living in a fantasy land; not someone with whom I will in the future waste any more time engaging in discussion.
 
The Klephts were sort of forced into that lifestyle given the extreme poverty of the region.You had a number of wealthy Greek families who along with the Ottoman beys taxed the peasants and this I'm sure contributed to their angst. In the Morea I believe the "hatred" for the Turks came from religious differences which may not have been as true in Rumeli or the North. Don't forget it was the Brigands led by folks like Mavromichaelis and Kolokotronis (who had a number of Brigands under his leadership) were responsible for the independence of the Morea.

Klepths and Armatoloi was the same thing,
if you pay them to pass your mercandise and guard it they were Armatoloi,
If you did not, they steal part of it from you as Klepths.
 
Yes, the Christians had so many rights under the Ottomans. Tell that to the Armenians against whom they committed a genocide.

You're living in a fantasy land; not someone with whom I will in the future waste any more time engaging in discussion.


Angela, sure, in his school books,

Ask Eupator,
Could a Turk marry a A Christian Balkan girl?
Could a Balkan (Greek Serb Bulgarian Albanian) marry an Ottoman girl?
 
The fullest surviving criminal code from this period is traditionally called the
Kanun of Suleyman the magnificent, and probably dates from 1534-45, the middle years of his reign.
Compared wit the law of Stefan Dusan, it is positively humane:
although there some punishments involving death or mutilation (hanging for burglars, branding for pimps,
and the amputation of a hand for those guilty of major thefts), most of the penalities consist of
fines or floggings - even for morally serious offences such as fornification. Interestingly,
the fines for 'unbelievers' (Christians and Jews) are set at one-half of the fines for Muslims.


For those who chose to become Muslims,
the immediate economic benefit was a reduction in taxation: above all,
they were freed from the cizye. This was a special tax on non-Muslims


Other taxes, such as the peasants ispence or resim-i cift, were set
at a slightly lower rate for Muslims. But on the other hand Muslims had to
pay zekat or alms-tax, which was not paid by Christians; and, as we have seen, the fines
on Muslims in the criminal courts were twice as heavy.




According to standard Islamic
regulations, Christian communities were
permitted to maintain existing
church builidings, but not
to extend them without special
permission. Such permission, for extensions or
even completely new churches, was in fact given
quite frequently: there was widespread rebuilding
of churches and monasteries in the area of the Patriarchate
of Pec in the second half of the sixteenth century.
Generally speaking, monasteries were allowed to keep their
estates, and in some cases they were even granted some
of the tax privileges associated with vakif status.


Under traditional Islamic law it
was of course meritorious at an
individual level to convert people to Islam;
but Christians and Jews in general were zimmi (people of protection),
which meant their status was subordinate but protected by law.
They had various legal disabilities; they were not allowed
to bear arms (a prohibition widely disregarded in the Albanian lands);
and they were forbidden to wear certain Islamic items of dress. There were
also more strict prohibition against insulting the Islamic faith or trying
to convert people from it. So long as they accepted these restrictions, the Christians
were allowed to get on with their own religious lives, maintaining their own churches
and even, as mentioned above, their own civil courts.


......................
 
@1337

Yes like reading modern Erdogan;s book for elementary,

what is next?
Christians and especially Yunans were not gratefull for the rights given to them
they were greed and unfaithfull so they revolt, against their Ottoman paradise they lived in,

What about the obligations,
what the dilmi, Should dilmi allow 'blood taxation'?


DO NOT FORGET, Suleiman the magnificent (history name him such, so I respect it)
read the Quran that when you sleep is like being in a kind of death.
So he order to murder Imbrahim Pargali his Grand Visier, when he (Suleiman) is asleep,
and by this Fetva he was innocent of his death, although he order it !!!!!!!

Machiavelli, Raspoutin, even Hitler are innocent in such paranoia!!!!

Anyway the betrayal of Pargali is also the primary split among GrecoRomans and Ottomans,
the trust that Mohamet the defiler try to input to secure a productive state, is betrayed,
After the Polish Win at Siege of Vienna, Ottoman will never stand foot to restore old glory,
and if were not the Kurds, who pay it being a no country nation,
and Lenin who support Kemal with guns and Gold,
Turkey today maybe would be a at least 50% less country,

BTW
If you are trully an Albanian, then you know Albania was almost absorved by Ottomans, in such condition that Albania could named as Western Turkey a Century before,
like the Kurds, you may had no country of yours,
 
Yes, the Christians had so many rights under the Ottomans. Tell that to the Armenians against whom they committed a genocide.

You're living in a fantasy land; not someone with whom I will in the future waste any more time engaging in discussion.


The Armenian (and Greek/Assyrian) ethnic cleansing took place immediately after the Ottoman period and its dismantlement by the Neo-Turks who also put the old Ottoman establishment to the sword. They are two separate entities with different leaderships and political structure and goals. The Neo-Turks had the full support of several Western Euro. imperial powers of the time and were also armed by them and the Russian (Soviet) establishment of the time.

For the Greek situation, specifically, the destruction of Pontus and coastal Asia Minor was machinated with the blessing of the British (foremost) and the French (secondary) who had already plans of securing deals with the Neo-Turks for the looting of Christian wealth (banks, factories, etc) and the transfer of the Christian populations of Anatolia to newly acquired Macedonia and Thrace by the Greek Kingdom, whose leadership was perfectly in line with everything that transpired (ie see the facilitation of the Lausanne Treaty regarding the population exchanges, first one in world history to facilitate uprooting of such magnitude) in order to create a bastion against Bulgarian (and hence Russian) expansionism to the Aegean (the 'warm seas'). Something that they achieved with great success as future events unfolded.

With such historical issues the devil lies in the details.
 
The Armenian (and Greek/Assyrian) ethnic cleansing took place immediately after the Ottoman period and its dismantlement by the Neo-Turks who also put the old Ottoman establishment to the sword. They are two separate entities with different leaderships and political structure and goals. The Neo-Turks had the full support of several Western Euro. imperial powers of the time and were also armed by them and the Russian (Soviet) establishment of the time.

For the Greek situation, specifically, the destruction of Pontus and coastal Asia Minor was machinated with the blessing of the British (foremost) and the French (secondary) who had already plans of securing deals with the Neo-Turks for the looting of Christian wealth (banks, factories, etc) and the transfer of the Christian populations of Anatolia to newly acquired Macedonia and Thrace by the Greek Kingdom, whose leadership was perfectly in line with everything that transpired (ie see the facilitation of the Lausanne Treaty regarding the population exchanges, first one in world history to facilitate uprooting of such magnitude) in order to create a bastion against Bulgarian (and hence Russian) expansionism to the Aegean (the 'warm seas'). Something that they achieved with great success as future events unfolded.

With such historical issues the devil lies in the details.

The Genocide of Greek of Pontus, was a Product of Lenin and Soviets,

ΣυνολοΡωσσικης βοηθειας απο Ρωσσια στηνΤουρκια για την Γενοκτονια Των Ποντιων
Ιουν1920 Κωνσταντινουπολη
6000 τυφεκια
5000 000 σφαιρες
13κανονια
17600 βληματα
Δεκ1920 βατουμι
34000 τυφεκια
330πολυβολα
54κανονια
60000 000 σφαιρες
130000 βληματα.
Οκτ1921
!!!2 αντιτορπιλικα !!!!
2εργοστασια πυριτιδας
2εργοστασια καλυκοποιειας.
Αγνωστοςαριθμος οπλων


Ουτετο 1/10 δεν δωσαν ποτε στην Ελλαδα απο το1770 μεχρι το 1922
ΜαςΞεσηκωσαν σε επανασταση το 1770 και μαςδωσαν 10 000 στολες


Οτουρκος υπουργος Οικονομικων HasanFehmi Ataçπαραδεχεται βοηθεια απο την Ρωσσια πανωαπο 10 μυρια χρυσα ρουβλια και πανω απο220 κιλα καθαρο χρυσο,
και αλλο 1 μυριαχρυσα ρουβλια απο την Ρωσσια στηνΓερμανια για αγορα γερμανικου οπλισμουγια χαρη της Τουρκιας.
Γιανα κανει την Γενοκτονια των Ποντιων και Μικρασιατικη καταστροφη.
Ουτετο 1/10 δεν δωσαν ποτε στην Ελλαδα απο το1770 μεχρι το 1922
Ουτεδανεια δεν μας διναν.
Καιπηραμε δανειο απο Αγγλια.


Στομνημειο του Κεμαλ υπαρχει 1 ονομα,
МихаилВасильевич Фрунзе Μιχαηλ Φουνζε,
Οσχεδιαστης και οργανωτης της ΓΕΝΟΚΤΟΝΙΑΣΤΩΝ ΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ. 353000
Οσχεδιαστης της δολοφονιας του MustaphaSuphi,
τουιδρυτη του Κομουνιστικου κομματος στηνΤουρκια.




СемёнИванович Аралов
Αλλοςτουτος, μεσω GRU αποσπουσεπληροφοριες απο και για τους Ποντιους,και μετα τις παρεδιδε στους Τουρκους.

1921Συνθηκη του Καρς και Συνθηκη της Μοσχας
καιενω ο 1ος παγκοσμιος Πολεμος τελειωνει,βρισκει Ποντιους και Αρμενους να πολεμανστην Αρμενια και στον Ποντο κα στηνΓεωργια για λογαριασμο του Ρωσσικουστρατου.
ΞΑΦΝΙΚΑΗ ΡΩΣΣΙΑ ΑΡΝΕΙΤΑΙ ΤΟ ΜΕΓΑΛΟ ΑΡΜΕΝΙΣΤΑΝμε Αντιβασιλεα τον ΜητροπολιτηΤραπεζουντας Και ΔΩΡΙΖΕΙ στην Τουρκιατο 30% των σημερινων Εδαφων ΤΗΣ

Russia and Lenin did not want a Greek state at black sea, so in order to avoid such they gave gift 30% of her today land keeping only Batoymi (Vatum)that effect too much Armenia, cause the primary idea was to make a wider Armenian state, with semi-autonomous Pontus,
treaties of Karsounta and Moscow is clear,

offcourse what Turks did not finish continue at Russia at 1937 with Лаврентий Павлович Бéрия
Gretseskayia Operatsia
Πανωαπο 30 000 Ελληνες Νεκροι στην Ρωσσικηεπικρατεια
ΕκτελουνΕλληνες χωρις καν δικαστηρια.
even KonstantinChelpan who fought for Bolsevics, honored with Order of Lenin price, and designer of the most succesfull tank of Russia (Soviet era) t34 V2 ever which even Nazi admire.
did not escape the execution by personal order of Stalin.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konstantin_Chelpan

offcourse the assasination of Turkish first Communist, Mustapha Suphi and the hag of Lenin with Kemal is a very dark case and action.
maybe the myth of Enver Pasha is true, maybe not,


On the other hand,
Us the Greeks realize that Smyrna front was tough, and instead use Locals, we were biased to conquest all Turkey, MEGALI IDEA,
and not only we did not stop there, but we transfer front deep outside Ankara, and also we dare to conquest Constantoupolis making operations
Remember ChatziAnestis redraw troops, and especially ammo toThrace dreaming to congueast Con/polis.
These ideas were not favorite to allies (Entente cordiale) so they order us to stop, and since we continue without warnings we left out of ammo,
Allies had warn us to stop, even behind Treaty of Sèvres

so allies stop supporting us cause exceed the treaty and our power,
and Russia strange creates a new alliance with Turkey, helping them as no one else before.
 
Some more on devshirme

Although the devsirme was a cruel infliction on Christian parents, it nevertheless provided the main form of upward social mobility in the early Ottoman system: this was the route by which raya children became members of the askeri class. While some may have lost touch altogether with their families, there are many cases of successful members of the dev§irme intake re-establishing contact with their areas of origin and extending their patronage towards them. 3 So sought after were the advantages that could flow from Janissary status that the Slav Muslims of Bosnia asked for, and obtained, the special privilege of sending their own sons to join this otherwise entirely Christian intake. But among the Christian villagers the devsirme was understandably unpopular; in 1565 there was an uprising against it in Albania, and some areas, such as the mining district of Novo Brdo, were granted exemption from the dev“ irme as a special privilege. 5 Albanians were particularly prized by the devsirme collectors for their physical toughness and fighting skills. Many also turned out to be canny administrators who rose to the highest offices of state: two fifteenth-century Grand Viziers, Gedik Ahmet pasha and Davut pasha, are known to have been of Albanian origin, and the total number of Albanian Grand Viziers in the history of the Empire -including many Albanians from Kosovo - is put at forty-two. Apart from creating upward mobility, the devsirme was also important in two other processes of social change: it played a part in spreading Islam in the Balkans, and it also ensured that the Ottoman ruling class became an ethnic melange of all its subject peoples. (For this reason, although the word 'Turks' was used to describe the original conquerors of the Balkans, the term 'Ottomans' will be used from now on.)
 
Some more on devshirme


I think we are reading crap,
think after 1 century how much forced islamization is done,
how much the ballances changes

and believe me i do not care if deep inside you, you;re a turk, or an Ottoman era lover

think a family with No rights or permited rights, bear 2-3 kids,
the mothers in high danger cause that era women bear without doctors.
and the state to take it from you, 6 years old cause you are a rayah, a Christian, or better a kuffar?
with the promise for a brilliant future!!!!!! WOW
remember ic oglan were sold for 2 gold coins
can you imagine how much Pedophiliacs dreamed this?
can you imagine your grand dad being an ic oglan?

if you are an Albanian, tell me the Greek, who always revolt, and complain etc etc,
Did Albanians revolt for less? YES
and think, yes the bad Greeks eat pig, the bad Serbs piss outside toilet, the bad ... lets say Americans drink raki.
But think, what you would do if someone took your firstborn boy 1000 km away by law?
and you may never see it?
what pain your wife will suffer for her hole lifetime.stop providing bitter as honey,
your ancestors taste that bitterness.
do not treat them again the same drink.
 
I think we are reading crap,

The Devshirme laws you keep referring to were officially abolished in 1826 with the complete dissolution of the corps by Mahmud II.

To put things in perspective, in other parts of the world, you had Apartheid all the way up to 1994, Jim Crow until 1965, and Marion's cases in 1992.

As for your beloved crusaders here's a very interesting video about one of their greatest contributions to hellenic civilization.


 
I keep coming back to Mehmet Ali's supposed scheme to slaughter the inhabitants of the Morea and replace them with Egyptians. Is there anything more to say-thank God for the West's intervention.
 
Loyal Ottoman Servants :LOL:

‘rather negligent' by the secretary of the Propaganda Fide. (He also noted that the bishop of the northern Albanian diocese of Pulat had been imprisoned for many years in Rome, 'for having been unruly, and because of doubts about his faith'.)

The Catholic Church in Kosovo was poor, and was frequently under pressure not only from the Ottoman authorities but also from the Orthodox Church, which tried to force the Catholics to pay it ecclesiastical dues. Within one year of the reinstatement of the Serbian Patriarchate, the new Patriarch Makarije had obtained an imperial firman (decree) that all Christians in his territory must pay their church taxes to him. 50 Such moves by the Orthodox Church, which were always eventually reversed by the diplomatic efforts of the Catholic powers in Istanbul, were a recurrent feature of Orthodox-Catholic relations: a similar firman was granted, for example, in 1661 and only withdrawn in 1665/6, thanks to the efforts of a Scottish general, Walter Leslie, who was acting as an envoy of the Austrian Emperor. A letter survives from Ndre Bogdani in Janjevo in 1664, complaining bitterly about this; he said that the Patriarch, who resided in the nearby monastery of Gracanica, was trying to extract a tribute of 100 scudi (roughly 15,000 akces) from the Catholics, and described the Orthodox - who he said were protected by the Ottomans - as the Catholics' worst enemies.

It is certainly true that the Orthodox Church was looked on with less suspicion by the Ottoman government: the Catholics owed their religious allegiance to a foreign power, the Papacy, whereas the Serbian, Bulgarian and Greek Orthodox Churches all lay within the territory of the Empire. The finances of the Serbian Church were also linked with those of the state: as early as the 1570s the practice had grown up of Patriarchs paying a large annual ‘gift' to the Sultan (120,000 akces in 1578) for the continuance of their rights. This would lead eventually to wholesale simony, the submission of huge financial bids to the Sultan for the privilege of being appointed Patriarch. The money was recouped from an annual tax paid by each Orthodox household (twelve akces for the Church, twelve for the Patriarch in person); parishioners paid taxes, and charges for religious services, to their priests, and the priests paid a tax to their bishops. One Catholic cleric wrote of the Orthodox priests in the Pec Patriarchate in 1640: ‘they are extremely grasping, and will not administer the sacraments without payment; they also require money for giving absolution on the point of death, and they bargain for payment for giving the viaticum [eucharist for the dying]'.

Compared with the Catholic Church, the Serbian Orthodox Church in Kosovo was certainly much larger, richer, more established and more privileged. This helps to explain why a much lower proportion of its members converted to Islam. It was also apparently skilful in using its family connections with the Ottoman administration (most of them, probably, resulting from the dev§irme system): one Catholic report in the early seventeenth century commented that the monks of Pec were all related to beys and sancakbeyis. 55 And yet, as we have seen, there were Patriarchs such as Jovan (1592- 1614) who were so determined to throw off Ottoman rule that they willingly turned to Catholic powers for help. This move happened to coincide with a new enthusiasm in the Papacy for forming 'Uniate' or 'Greek Catholic' Churches - that is, Orthodox Churches which acknowledged the primacy of the Pope and were accepted into the Catholic church


- Kosovo: A Short History
 

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