How can IE migration be explained without mentioning Seima Turbino?

[video]

It’s a petroglyph of a mysterious being with two arms two legs and seven heads branching out from a very long neck.
It was first discovered in the Khakassia region of Siberia. According to the experts, it dates back 5,000 years and while some claim it has something to do with astrology it might be something altogether different we can’t even hope to comprehend.
Let’s take a look at the Hindu goddess Manasa who is depicted as an ordinary woman with a couple of extra arms and seven cobra heads fanning out behind her ordinary head.
It may not look exactly the same as the petroglyph from Siberia but it’s the same basic idea: a great deity with seven heads.
Moving on to Hinduism we find beings with seven heads all throughout ancient mythology too.
seven the Greek hero Hercules had to slay the hydra which is a beast with seven heads.
Cultures from Mongolia to Iran all had some kind of monster with the same amount of heads and they were almost always serpent heads.
Even in Mexico, a sculpture has been found depicting a popular deity with seven snakeheads.....
This was found in Veracruz. It’s the Aztec goddess of fertility Aparicio.

I think this altai petroglyph shows that 7 headed Sky father, mother earth, their 7 children and a tree of life.

"In religious or mythological cosmology, the seven heavens refer to seven levels or divisions of the Heavens. The concept, also found in the ancient Mesopotamian religions, can be found in Judaism and Islam; the Christian Bible does not mention seven levels of heaven, it mentions three; a similar concept is also found in some other religions such as Hinduism."

Greek religion and philosophy[edit]​

"Each of the seven heavens corresponds to one of the seven classical planets known in antiquity. Ancient observers noticed that these heavenly objects (the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) moved at different paces in the sky both from each other and from the fixed stars beyond them. Unlike comets, which appeared in the sky with no warning, they moved in regular patterns that could be predicted.[2] They also observed that objects in the sky influenced objects on earth as when movements of the sun affect the behavior of plants or movements of the moon affect ocean tides."

- Sun shield mark on petroglyph is "earth" by Hopi american indian. okunevo also has this mark:


- Aztec had 7 tribes:
"Aztlán (from Nahuatl languages: Astlan, Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈast͡ɬãːn̥] (listen)) is the ancestral home of the Aztec peoples."
 
1. seima turbino culture migrated to china
https://www.academia.edu/45055541/Seima_Turbino_Culture_and_the_Proto_Silk_Road

2. chinese character 王 means "king"

3. Axe represented king at chinese Shang dynasty:

"Paleophilologists tell people that in oracle bone inscriptions, the character "王" is a deformation of the characters "axe" and "yue". The so-called "king" means using armed force to defend his status as "king" and suppress rebels."
b53766746eb538ffe22589c5ba80b289.png



4. Seima turbino Axe (King or Lord) has three components of circle ouroboros (sun or snake) and triangle sunlight and diamond snake: Sun and snake(thunderbolt):

Typical-Seima-Turbino-hollow-core-cast-implements-a-deep-socketed-adze-axe-from-Rostovka.png

molodin-seima-turbino-baraba-forest-steppe.jpg
Thus, seima turbino axe is a Vajra:

"According to Asko Parpola, the Sanskrit vajra- (वज्र-) and its Avestan cognate vazra- are possibly ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *weg'- which means "to be(come) powerful". The related Proto-West-Uralic *vaśara ("axe, mace", (later) "hammer"; whence Ukonvasara, "Ukko's hammer") is an early loanword from the Proto-Indo-Aryan *vaj’ra- but not from Proto-Iranian, state Parpola and Carpelan, because its palatalized sibilant is not consistent with the depalatalization which occurred in Proto-Iranian."

"The Vajra (Sanskrit: वज्र, romanized: Vajra, lit. 'Thunderbolt') is a legendary and ritualistic weapon, symbolizing the properties of a diamond (indestructibility) and a thunderbolt (irresistible force)"
 
The presence of the Seima-Turbino phase is also evidenced by a find of ananthropomorhic figurine, which finds parallels in Rostovka and Galich hoard (Stefanov, 2004). Supplementary Information p138 below:

Shiva_as_Lord_of_the_Dance_%28Nataraja%29.jpg


Site-of-St-Erasmus-near-Ohrid-Komani-Kruje-rondela-pendant-Sl-4-Lokalitet-Svetog_fig1_349303595
https://www.researchgate.net/figure...-pendant-Sl-4-Lokalitet-Svetog_fig1_349303595

048_014_1w.jpg


Da_Vinci_Vitruve_Luc_Viatour.jpg
Isn't it something called nataraja, A dance posture of Indian God Shiva?
 
804f5b22b8842eaed267e28b91dcf969.jpg

Kushan ruler:
Coin_of_Heraios.jpg


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Ephthalites (white Hun)
d0e840b4bb02f2229d897d224559f388.jpg


c4863b2e9f38dc1f0c75ccb110295f67.jpg


https://scfh.ru/en/papers/we-drank-s...ame-immortal-/

Qin shihuwang also:

05-0001.JPG


Gold_Mask_%28%E9%BB%84%E9%87%91%E9%9D%A2%E7%BD%A9%29.jpg

Facial reconstruction of a man who could be Qin Shi Huang's son and a woman who may have been a wife or concubine.:

a wet felted rug with archaic motif from Turkmenistan:
20220509_15071455541391625277801.jpg


"An image of the first Qin emperor on a stone tablet. His attire is decorated with spiral patterns.(above)
Torch for the Beijing Olympics 2008 with spiral patterns.
The Cherchen man with a spiral-pattern painted on the temple.
The horse from Gansu with a spiral pattern on the temple."

Cherchen_Man_mummy_in_XUAR_Museum.jpg


"Along his temples, there is bright yellow, ochre face paint in a swirl design with rays extending out of the spiral, which spread across his cheek over the bridge of his nose."

seima turbino spirals on dagger:

Genetic_ancestry_and_admixture_of_ancient_populations_of_Eurasia.png


Tarim people nose and earing:
Burial_goods_excavated_from_the_Xiaohe_cemetery_%28wooden_sculpture_excavated_from_the_upper_layer_of_a_double-layer_mud_coffin_of_XHM75%29.jpg


seima turbino nose and ring:
Artefacts_Seima-Turbino_GIM.jpg

Moscow_State_Historical_Museum_-_IMG_3472.JPG


"unfortunately, in china we do not yet know of any metal object related,without doubt, to the chemurchek culture. kovalev, erdenebaatar, tishkin and grushin found several leaden ear rings and one ring of tin bronze in three excavated chemurchek stone boxes (kovalev and erdenebaatar 2014a; tishkin et al. 2015). such lead rings are typical for elunino culture,which occupied the entire west altai after 2400–2300 bce (tishkin et al. 2015). this culture had developed a tradition of bronze metallurgy with various dopants, primarily tin. thus, the tradition of bronze metallurgy as early as this time could have penetrated the mongolian altai far to the south."

tarim :
Cone-shaped_high-peaked_hat%2C_Subeshi_cemetery.jpg


okunevo:
Okunev_figurine_from_Itkul_II_mound_14%2C_northern_Minusinsk_Basin._Uybat_stage_of_the_Okunevo_Culture_%28second_half_of_the_3rd_millennium_BC%29_3.jpg
 
- sarmatians form Trajan's Column (Cited from: https://www.cointalk.com/threads/constantine-and-the-the-sarmatians.389918/)
f0a93b3cc415e61fa2fde3e47d071d94-jpg.1402064


- sarmatian-style karacena armor in Poland
Karacena.JPG

Xiongnu_ancestry.png


Orlat_plaque_battle_scenes_%28top%29.jpg


"Yury Khudyakov found numerous similarities between the plaques and other Xiongnu-Sarmatian finds from Mongolia and Altay, particularly a group of plaques retrieved from Tepsei Mount near the Yenisey River, usually attributed to Tashtyk culture.[1]

Pugachenkova believes the plaques were made by the inhabitants of Kangju, thought to have been closely related to the Kushans and Tocharians. The Kangjus were probably Scythians, opposed to the Kushans, as seen in Khalchayan.[5] Overall, the soldiers would be either Sogdians or Sakas,[6] much less probably Yuezhis or Parthians."
 
"Yellow and purple spiral and sun patterns on the mummy's face have been misidentified as tattoos in some sources; they are actually an ochre paint.":

Cherchen_Man_mummy_in_XUAR_Museum_%28tattoos%29.jpg


"Other hints at the depictions on the razors being significant to travelling to the under world can be seen on some of the rarer examples.":

Nordic-Bronze-age-razor-1.png


 
^
^
^ Seima turbino formula: sun/horse triangle up, snake diamond down

Outline-of-the-solar-cosmology-postulated-by-Kaul-1998-with-outline-drawings-of-the.png




"Outline of the solar cosmology postulated by Kaul (1998), with outline drawings of the Trundholm Sun Chariot and a decorated bronze razor from Denmark."


"The Sun Chariot illustrates several of the same ideas. It consists of a bronze disc mounted on wheels, and is drawn by a horse, also on wheels. It can be viewed from two sides. When it appears to travel from left to right – the movement of the sun across the sky during the day – the disc is covered in gold. When it returns, from right to left (as it would do at night), the surface of the disc is plain.

The same distinction has been recognised by Flemming Kaul (1998) in a study of the decorated metalwork of Bronze Age Scandinavia. Among the commonest artefacts are the razors which were normally deposited with the dead. They feature tiny drawings of boats and the sun. Again the direction of travel is all-important. Where a ship carries the sun from left to right, it is associated with a horse. Kaul describes these vessels as ‘day ships’. Where a boat is shown moving in the opposite direction, it is often accompanied by a sh or a snake. Kaul suggests that these pictures refer to the hours of darkness, and that while the sun returns from right to left it is hidden under water. In that case the crucial transitions occur at sunrise and sunset (Figure 1)"


So boat means death?
mummies' boat grave at tarim basin

244b675390e5f991bed5a17c7663fbbc.jpg


Kola Oleneostrovskiy boat shaped Grave Field: A Unique Burial Site in the European Arctic:

https://www.archeo.ru/struktura-1/o...in_Kolpakov_Shumkin_Khartanovich_Moiseyev.pdf
Anglo saxon ship burial:
_92787044_capture.jpg.webp


"The ship was full of gold and silver, jewellery and weapons, bowls and cups. In Anglo-Saxon times these sorts of things were often buried with people when they died - perhaps because the Anglo-Saxons thought the dead person would need them on their journey to another life, or when he got there."

Swedish snake-witch:
Snake-witch.JPG


-Czech:

914309153c74bf2c7d354fe95e49ad8f.jpg



"Czech archaeologists have announced a unique discovery. A team of experts from Brno have unearthed a bronze belt buckle from the early Middle Ages, depicting a snake devouring a frog-like creature. The find could shed more light on people’s spiritual life in the pre-Christian era, of which we know very little."

- Okunevo and Aryan valley Ladakh images:
 
I think this altai petroglyph shows that 7 headed Sky father, mother earth, their 7 children and a tree of life.

"In religious or mythological cosmology, the seven heavens refer to seven levels or divisions of the Heavens. The concept, also found in the ancient Mesopotamian religions, can be found in Judaism and Islam; the Christian Bible does not mention seven levels of heaven, it mentions three; a similar concept is also found in some other religions such as Hinduism."

- Sun shield mark on petroglyph is "earth" by Hopi american indian. okunevo also has this mark:


- Aztec had 7 tribes:
"Aztlán (from Nahuatl languages: Astlan, Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈast͡ɬãːn̥] (listen)) is the ancestral home of the Aztec peoples."
CUCUTENI-TRYPILLIA:

MotherGoddessFertility.JPG

i-206-gigapixel-low-res-scale-4-00x-1024x819.jpg


Majiayao culture gansu china w/ CUCUTENI-TRYPILLIA pottery and western flexed burial:
hb_1992.165.8.jpg

Burial_site_reconstruction%2C_Bianjiagou%2C_Gansu_province%2C_China%2C_neolithic_Yangshao_culture%2C_ceramic_pots%2C_grind_stones%2C_human_skeleton_-_Östasiatiska_museet%2C_Stockholm_-_DSC09659.jpg


gansu seima turbino burial:
9-0595a44bd8.jpg

 

"Map-scheme of the distribution of Baikal jade in the Bronze Age ( green shows the places of finds on the territory of Russia, brown - on the territory of China): 1 - Seimas; 2 - Ust-Vetluzhsky burial ground; 3 - Turbine; 4 - Okunevo-15; 5 - Shaman cape; 6 - Shumilikha; 7 , Khake, Inner Mongolia; 8 - Daqiao (Big Bridge) on the river. Wuyer, Helongjiang Province; 9 - Wanhaitun, Heilongjiang Province; 10 - Xinxingxiang, Jilin Province"

https://elementy.ru/nauchno-populyarnaya_biblioteka/434672/Raznye_tsveta_nefrita

- seima turbino migration:
urn:cambridge.org:id:binary-alt:20170920130655-32242-mediumThumb-S0003598X17001776_fig3g.jpg

urn:cambridge.org:id:binary-alt:20170920130655-76677-mediumThumb-S0003598X17001776_fig2g.jpg


(Erlitou culture above in the map is called Xia)

seima turbino culture into shang china:
https://www.academia.edu/45055541/Seima_Turbino_Culture_and_the_Proto_Silk_Road

Objectives:
Previous studies of archaeology and history suggested that the riseand prosperity of Bronze Age culture in East Asia had made essential contributionto the formation of early state and civilization in this region. However, the impactsin perspective of genetics remain ambiguous. Previous genetic researchesindicated the Y-chromosome Q1a1a-M120 and N1a2a-F1101 may be the twomost important paternal lineages among the Bronze Age people in ancientnorthwest China. Here, we investigated the 9,000-years history of haplogroupN1a2a-F1101 with revised phylogenetic tree and spatial autocorrelation analysis.

Materials and Methods: In this study, 229 sequences of N1a2a-F1101 were analyzed. We developed a highly-revised phylogenetic tree with age estimates for N1a2a-F1101. In addition, we also explored the geographical distribution of sub-lineages of N1a2a-F1101, and spatial autocorrelation analysis was conducted for each sub-branch.

Results:
The initial differentiation location of N1a2a-F1101 and its most closely related branch, N1a2b-P43, a major lineage of Uralic-speaking populations in northern Eurasia, is likely the west part of northeast China. After ~4 thousand years of bottleneck effect period, haplgroup N1a2a-F1101 experienced continuous expansion during the Chalcolithic age (~ 4.5 kya to 4 kya) and Bronze age (~ 4kya to 2.5 kya) in northern China. Ancient DNA evidence supported that this haplogroup is the lineage of ruling family of Zhou Dynasty (~ 3 kya-2.2 kya) of ancient China.

Discussion:
In general, we proposed that the Bronze Age people in the border area between the eastern Eurasian steppe and northern China not only played a key role in promoting the early state and civilization of China, but also left significant traces in the gene pool of Chinese people

 
^

Expansion during the chalcolithic age and bronze age​

"During the Chalcolithic age (about 4.5 kya-4.0 kya) in East Asia, copper, cattle and wheat were introduced to the East Asian heartland (Liu and Chen, 2003; Liu, 2004; Liu and Chen, 2017). Archaeologists have suggested that the elements may have spread from northern boundary of China through the Eurasian steppe. However, the demographic context of this important cultural process is very ambiguous. Around 4,000 years ago, the Bronze culture arose in the agro-pastoral region of northwestern China and later spread across East Asia and Southeast Asia. The mixing of the bronze culture of agriculture and animal husbandry with the people of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River contributed to the establishment of three dynasties of the Bronze Age in ancient China, namely the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties (Liu and Chen, 2003; Liu, 2004; Liu and Chen, 2017).

As discussed above, ancient populations with Q1a1a-M120 and N1a2a-F1101 as the main paternal lineages may have played a mediating role in the spread of the Copper and Bronze cultures from the eastern Eurasian steppe to the central East Asian region, due to their area of activity in the junction zone. Due to the same reason, these two paternal lines experienced a very significant spread during the Bronze Age, becoming important patrilineal lineages that occupied an upper political position in the Bronze Age, and were frequently detected in the tombs of chiefs and nobles of the time (Zhao et al., 2014; Sun et al., 2019; Ma et al., 2021; Wei et al., 2022). An interesting thing is that the significant expansion of N1a2a-F1101 occurred after 3,300 years ago, significantly later than the major expansion period of Q1a1a-M120 (4.2 kya-3 kya, Figure 1). Nevertheless, several downstream clades of Q1a1a-M120, like F4759 and F4689, exhibit simultaneous expansion with N1a2a1a1a1a1-F710 (Sun et al., 2019). Ancient DNA data suggest that these two paternal lineages were concentrated in ancient populations in northwest China, and co-occurred in some tombs (Zhao et al., 2014; Ma et al., 2021; Wei et al., 2022). These ancient DNA studies also suggest that N1a2a-F1101 is likely the paternal lineage of the royal family of the Zhou Dynasty, while Q1a1a-M120 is the main paternal lineage of the Rong-Di populations (Means “Barbarians” in ancient Chinese). Both paternal lineages became the main paternal component of the Chinese group in later generations. In conclusion, we speculate that Q1a1a-M120 and N1a2a-F1101 together constitute the main paternal lineages of the populations that worked as farmers and pastoralists in northwest China during the Copper-Bronze Age. They played a key role in the emergence of bronze culture, early states, and early civilizations in central region of ancient China."

Shockingly, the gene of the royal family of the Western Zhou Dynasty was detected as the N line:

"Abstract: In 2021, Jilin University conducted a genetic study on the Xiguanxi Zhou cemetery in Licheng, Shanxi. Through DNA extraction and analysis, scientists revealed the human genetic history of this ancient cemetery. The results of the study showed that two human bones in the cemetery had the Y chromosome type of N-F710, and one of them also detected N-F1998 (upstream of N-F710). In addition, through the analysis of 7 male DNA samples extracted from the tomb of the eldest son Xinancheng in the Western Zhou Dynasty, it was found that 4 of the samples were N-M128 (upstream of N-F1998), including the tomb owner M18. This study provides valuable genetic evidence for our deep understanding of ancient Chinese history."


"According to historical documents, the patriarchal system was adopted by ancestors of Han Chinese since the onset of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties[1]. In a clan-based state, the eldest son of the legal wife of the leader inherited the leadership, and the brothers of the eldest son would become aristocrats or civilians. Since the people of Hengbei were likely part of a vassal state under the Zhou Dynasty, they probably also had a patriarchal system, which suggests paternal kinship patterns could potentially be observed among some of the samples from aristocrats or civilians[2]. Assuming monophyletic inheritance and the absence of recombination in the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome, we found that in patrilineal societies, individuals from one clan often share the same Y chromosome haplogroup. Thus, the haplogroup Q1a1 was the predominant haplogroup found in Hengbei samples. Interestingly, Haplogroup Q1a1 is almost only found in the Han Chinese, and it was the predominant haplogroup in the aristocrats or civilians of Hengbei. Indeed, immolated slaves, among whom paternal kinship did not exist, had haplogroups O3a, O2a and O*. All of the haplogroups shared by samples from the Hengbei site are observed in modern Han Chinese, among whom the total frequency combining these five haplogroups reached high levels (66–100%)[3]. Moreover, In PCA, the HB was grouped closely with the NH and SH cluster. Thus, we think that the Genetic structure of the Northern Han Chinese was shaped prior to 3,000 years ago although the frequency of the haplogroup Q1a1 in the ancient people of Hengbei is 40.7%, which is much higher than that found in any modern human population (0–10%)."

we know that the Rong and Di were the same group with different names.
The Zhou and the Rong Were Blood RelativesThe relationship between the Zhou and the Rong people can be observed from the relationshipbetween the people of the Jin kingdom and the Rong. The Jin was a vassal kingdom established in thebeginning of the Zhou dynasty. The first king of the Jin kingdom was the prince Tang Shu, who wasthe younger brother of King Cheng, the second king of the Zhou dynasty. The peers of the Jinkingdom shared the same surname with the royal family of the Zhou dynasty and were their directconsanguine relatives. The relation between the Jin people and the Rong and Di can stand for therelationship between the Zhou people and the Rong and Di.

Unlike the Yangshao and Hemudu people, who came from southern China, the Huang Di nation came from west of China, from the western part of the Eurasian continent. They conquered the native people of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River, who possessed a developed agricultural culture. By combining their own imported cultural factors with those of the native culture, the Huang Di people gradually developed a splendid new civilization in the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties. They superseded the original native people to take the leading role on the stage of Chinese history. That the Huang Di nation was a branch of the archaic Indo-European people is one of the most remarkable facts thus far known to human history. But a large number of Indo-European words in Old Chinese language clearly attest to this fact. The relics left by the Huang Di people are related to the Longshan Culture in the archaeological chronicle, and the civilization of the Xia, Shang, Zhou, and Qin秦 dynasties were its successors.27 Evidence for this claim comes from two sources: the first uses the evidence of ancient documents to show that the Zhou people, and thus the Yellow Emperor’s nation, were originally a nomadic people, and the second is to reveal that there were a large number of Indo-European words in the Zhou language, using the evidence of historical linguistics. The third is the similarity in religion between the Huang Di people and Proto-Indo-European. As to the last point, please refer to the author’s paper “Old Chinese ‘帝*tees’ and Proto-Indo-European ‘*deus’: Similarity in Religious Ideas and a Common Source in Linguistics” (Zhou 2005).
The Original Meaning of “Rong 戎” According to Professor Yu Min: “ … [The word ‘Rong 戎’] was meant to indicate a style of life—nomadism—in the spoken language of the Zhou dynasty. The seed of agriculture was germinated in the period of Shennong (神农Holy Peasant). Whoever reverted to the life of the nomads could be called ‘Rong’” (Yu Min 1999: 210). Accepting the meaning “nomadism” for the word “Rong戎” in archaic times, we now turn to the corresponding word “Rong” in the Proto-Indo-European languages.45 The origin of “nomad” is quoted from The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (p. 613): nomad adoption of French nomade, Latin Nomad-, Nomas, pl. Nomades pastoral people wandering about with their flocks. Adoption of Greek nomad-, nomás roaming about, esp. for pasture, pl. Nomádes pastoral people, formed on *nom-, *nem- (némein pasture)… Rong 戎, Old Chinese *num > *nung, Middle Chinese nžong, Mandarin rong. Shuo Wen Jie Zi (The Analysis and Annotation of Characters, Xu Shen, 121 AD): “Qiang 羌, the western Rong people who live on pasturage of sheep (or goats).” (羌,西戎牧羊人也。) It is clear that the root of Proto-Indo-European *nom- is a cognate of OC *num. The sounds and the meanings are both equivalent. This is a good example of the fact that there were PIE words in the Old Chinese language.


The Rise of Agricultural Civilization in China:The Disparity between Archeological Discovery andthe Documentary Record and Its ExplanationbyZhou JixuCenter for East Asian Studies, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaChinese Department, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, Sichuan
 
^

“The war chariot and some other elements of the Central Eurasian Culture Complex appeared in China somewhat before the twelfth century BC . Burials in the royal necropolis found in the ruins of the late Shang capital at Anyang on the north bank of the Yellow River include numerous chariots and their horses, often along with the chariot warriors and their weapons. The chariots have many spokes rather than only four or six, the typical numbers used in the ancient Near East; they thus have extremely close analogues to contemporaneous chariots found in the Caucasus. They are also often found together with “northern” type knives typical of the steppe zone. It is now accepted that the chariot is an intrusive cultural artifact that entered Shang China from the north or northwest without any wheeled-vehicle precursors. The practice of burying chariots along with their horses and young men with weapons who seem to be their drivers and archers is a distinctive mark of the Central Eurasian Culture Complex, which at that time was undoubtedly still exclusively Indo-European. Such burials are frequently found at Shang sites, usually in association with the burial of high-ranking noblemen. As noted, historical sources on Central Eurasia from Antiquity through the Early Middle Ages attest that the men who belonged to a lord’s comitatus were buried together with him and their horses, weapons, and valuables. It is also significant that the first written Chinese texts, the Oracle Bone Inscriptions, began to be composed at about the same time. Although there seems to be no direct connection between this writing system and any other known system, the as-yet-unidentified Indo-European people who brought the chariots to China may well have brought the idea of writing as well.

The introduction of the chariot and comitatus burial in China can only be due to the appearance of a Central Eurasian people there… The mere capture of enemy chariots and horses would not have brought the skills required to use, maintain, and reproduce them…Because all other known examples of chariot warriors at that time were Indo-Europeans, the newcomers must have been Indo-Europeans. Considering the intruders’ significant impact on the culture of the Yellow River valley, they must have had a powerful linguistic impact also, one not limited to the words for the newly imported artifacts and practices. So far, their language has not yet been identified more specifically, but it is quite possible that it represents an otherwise unknown branch of Indo-European. (...)

In the traditional view, which still dominates the view of Sinological linguists, there is no room for any significant foreign influence on the development of Chinese. Yet this cannot be correct. The mounting evidence against the isolationist position, especially from archaeology, indicates that the intrusive Indo-European people who brought the chariot had a powerful influence on Shang culture and may even have been responsible for the foundation of the Shang Dynasty (ca.1570–1045 BC) itself. The Shang realm occupied only a rather small area in the Yellow River valley in what is now northern and eastern Honan (Henan), southeastern Shansi (Shanxi), and western Shantung (Shandong); such a state could easily have been dominated by an aggressive Indo-European people armed with war chariots. Although there is no direct evidence for or against any such political event, the existence of the intrusive chariot warriors, and their influence on Chinese material culture, cannot be denied.

The appearance of chariot warriors in East Asia coincides approximately with their appearance in Greece (Europe), Mesopotamia (the Near East, Southwest Asia), and northwestern India (South Asia). In all of the non-East Asian cases, the chariot warrior people spoke an Indo-European language. In the East Asian case the chariot warriors appear to have had the same Central Eurasian culture as the Indo-Europeans in the other regions of Eurasia. They should therefore have spoken an Indo-European language.

Linguistically, there are only two possible outcomes of this Indo-European intrusion. The Early Old Chinese language of the Oracle Bone Inscriptions is either a non-Indo-European language with an intrusive Indo-European element or an Indo-European language with an intrusive non-Indo-European element. In both scenarios, the language of the Bronze Inscriptions, Classical Chinese, and the modern Chinese languages and dialects are clear continuations of Early Old Chinese, the language of the Oracle Bone Inscriptions, which was therefore already “Chinese.” Recent linguistic research on Early Old Chinese supports the presence of numerous Indo-European elements that are clearly related to Proto-Indo-European already in the Shang period Oracle Bone Inscriptions. Their identification with a particular branch of Indo-European remains uncertain. However, it is possible that the language was close to Proto-Indo-European itself.

According to one current theory, the most likely scenario is that a small group of Indo-European chariot warriors entered the pre-Chinese culture zone in the central Yellow River valley as mercenaries. They stayed and intermarried with the local people, with the result that either their language became creolized by the local language, exactly as happened to the other Indo-European daughter languages, or the local language was creolized or otherwise significantly influenced by Indo-European (as happened to the Indo-European maryannu of Mitanni). In either case, the Indo-European language material in the resulting language, Early Old Chinese, derives from generic late Proto-Indo-European, from a known Indo-European daughter language, or from an already independent Indo-European daughter language that is otherwise unknown. (...) Only further linguistic research will establish whether Early Old Chinese is a minimally maintained Indo-European language or a minimally maintained local East Asian language. Whichever way it turns out, it is certain that Indo-European speakers and their language had a strong influence on what became China and also, directly or indirectly, on the Tibeto-Burman peoples.”

(Beckwith, 2009) p.68-80
 
^

Centum language?

"Originally Posted by jormung
The problem of loanwords from indoeuropean to old chinese is very old and it is discussed in any good book about lndoeuropean linguistics.
But we can find the discussion in several papers, for example in "Tocharian Loan Words in Old Chinese: Chariots, Chariot Gear, and Town Building", by Alexander Lubolsky, or
"Indo-European Vocabulary in Old Chinese A New Thesis on the Emergence of Chinese Language and Civilization in the Late Neolithic Age" by Tsung-tung Chang
* dog, hound (ie: *kun-k, old ch: *huan(g),*khuen )
* goose (ie: *ghans, old ch:*gans)
* pork (ie: *pork, old ch:* pog)
* horse (ie: *mork, old ch:*mog )
* cow (ie: *gwhou , old ch: *gou )
and several other as milk, chariot, ...."
"Among Indo-European dialects, Germanic languages seems to have been mostly akin to Old Chinese in consideration of the following points:
a. Among Indo-European dialects, Germanic preserved the largest number of cognate words also to be found in Chinese.
b. Germanic and Chinese belong to the group of so-called centum languages, in which all Proto-Indo-European velars remain velar~ (with only a few exceptional variants in Chinese, cf. p. 18, 449; p. 18, 449; p. 20, 644).
c. The initial /h/ in Germanic corresponds mostly to /h/ and /h/ been in Old Chinese. Though Germanic /h/ has hitherto lnterpreted as a shift from Indo-European /k/, it must have existed already in Proto-Indo-European, since interrogatives both in Germanic and Chinese have laryngeal initials (cf . p. 6, 645; p. 20, 644, 647, 648) .
d. In comparison with Sanskrit, Greek and Latin, Chinese and northern Germanic languages are poor in grammatical categories such as case, gender, number, tense, mood etc. I would sur- C mise generally that the daily speech of Germanic Peoples might have had a much simpler grammar than that suggested by the earliest Germanic literature which consists without exceptions of biblical translations from Greek or Latin. German proverbs and idioms are formulated without indications of case, gender and number, like Sino-Plafonic Papers, 7 (January, 198 8) "mit Kind und Kegel", "schwarz auf weiB", "alt und jung". Moreover, when the Franks settled in France as conquerors, the complex declination system of Vulgar Latin collapsed and Old French emerged without case and number. This historical fact may suggest that the Germans originally spoke a language without declinations.

With Old Chinese as evidence, we may conclude that the Germanic group of Indo-European was conservative in its phonetical and grammatical developments because of its peripheral northern location, far from the early high civilizations in the Near East where Hamitic and Semitic were spoken. On the other hand, the complicated conjugation system in Greek, Latin and Southern Germanic might have emerged later under the influence of a rich modal and temporal system of Altaic tribes, with whom Indo-Europeans had coexisted for thousands of years in Central Asia and in whose company they emigrated into Europe."

 
109964_Late_Western_Zhou_jade_burial_mask.jpg

MaskOfAgamemnon.jpg



"in ancient times people could connect with the heavens through the shaman with this heaven and earth connection, those controlling this form of communication had the knowledge and power to rule. therefore, the shaman became an indispensable member at the royal court. in fact, often times the king was actually the leader of the shamans. the founder of china’s first three dynasties possessed shaman and supernatural abilities. for example, xiayu was able to stop and control huge flooding by using mysterious powers of his "pace of yu”, which became an important style for later shamans. another shaman was shang tang of the shang dynasty, could pray to the heavens for rain. furthermore, shaman houji could make his own crops grow and mature faster than others. such traditions have been confirmed in shang dynasty oracles. the oracle bone inscriptions noted: the shang king is the leader of the shamans. according to the inscriptions, the only holder of prophecy rights is shang king. it contained contents of the shang kings performing rain dances and dream interpretations, all of which were both shang king’s and shaman’s activities. this demonstrates that shang kings were indeed shamans. note: kc chang, qingtong huichen"
^
"According to the "Research Report on Ancient DNA of the Remains of the Western Zhou Cemetery in Xinancheng of the Longzi" released by it, 4 of the 7 male samples were tested for N-M128 (upstream of N-F1998), and the other three cases were: 1 Q1a-Y642, 1 C2a1-CTS2428, 1 N1b2e-M1846."

According to genetic research, the northern branch of N, Ji Zhou, entered the Central Plains very late and is not a descendant of the Yellow Emperor.



- "It is worth mentioning that the descendants of N-F963-F1206 appeared in Hungary in large numbers. A few examples are briefly listed below":

N-CTS6967, early Avars leader, 1,400 years ago;
N-F4205, suspected to be an Avars khan, 1,400 years ago;
N-F4205, military entourage of Avar Khan, 1,400 years ago;
N-Y16220, mid-Avar period in Hungary, 1330 years ago;
N-Y16220, late Avavar period in Hungary, 1200 years ago;
N-A9411, Hungarian conqueror noble, 1000 years ago.

- The Newest Study in Scandinavian aDNA: lots of N


- another elite groups at west zhou dynasty Q1a -M120:

 
albanian symbol




828b76ab0f8c2ba95186e30aec60d299--tattoo-pied-africa-tattoos.jpg


Yezidi women’s ankle tattoos from Iraq, ca. 1930.

first one is chinese oracle bone script of 東 (means "East" or "the place of sun to rise")
%25E6%259D%25B1.gif

sun and sun's ray
images

"Unlike the Yangshao and Hemudu people, who came from southern China, the Huang Di (黄帝)nation came from west of China, from the western part of the Eurasian continent. They conquered the native people of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River, who possessed a developed agricultural culture. By combining their own imported cultural factors with those of the native culture, the Huang Di people gradually developed a splendid new civilization in the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties. They superseded the original native people to take the leading role on the stage of Chinese history. That the Huang Di nation was a branch of the archaic Indo-European people is one of the most remarkable facts thus far known to human history. But a large number of Indo-European words in Old Chinese language clearly attest to this fact. The relics left by the Huang Di people are related to the Longshan Culture in the archaeological chronicle, and the civilization of the Xia, Shang, Zhou, and Qin秦 dynasties were its successors.27 Evidence for this claim comes from two sources: the first uses the evidence of ancient documents to show that the Zhou people, and thus the Yellow Emperor’s nation, were originally a nomadic people, and the second is to reveal that there were a large number of Indo-European words in the Zhou language, using the evidence of historical linguistics. The third is the similarity in religion between the Huang Di people and Proto-Indo-European. As to the last point, please refer to the author’s paper “Old Chinese ‘帝*tees’ and Proto-Indo-European ‘*deus’: Similarity in Religious Ideas and a Common Source in Linguistics” (Zhou 2005)."

黄帝 (yellow Lord) means "emperor":

v2-438ac345b8bd433b5f6cc110908d855e_720w.webp

v2-523f8280d1b28cf3cf3c90d11f68ae13_720w.webp


Tanumshede_2005_rock_carvings_5.jpg


yellow emperor?

Gold_Mask_%28黄金面罩%29.jpg
 
what does three fingers mean at bronze age?

Aryan Valley, Ladakh India:
image75.jpg


14-c2305a9841.jpg


family emblem at shang china:
v2-296bbe4b2de4ca4b46c82189cb2878c0_720w.webp

 
the script on oracle bone of 走 (means "run" or "walk")

走-oracle.svg


Aryan Valley, Ladakh India:

Figure%201%20Francke%20Petroglyph%20sites.jpg


14-c2305a9841.jpg
 
黄帝 (yellow Lord) means "emperor":

v2-438ac345b8bd433b5f6cc110908d855e_720w.webp

v2-523f8280d1b28cf3cf3c90d11f68ae13_720w.webp


Tanumshede_2005_rock_carvings_5.jpg


Left-and-detail-Burial-14-and-centre-Burial-69-with-copper-base-belts-arm-bangles.png


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292340712_Metallurgy_in_Southeast_Asia


05-0001.JPG
 

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