Genome-wide data from medieval German Jews. Preprint.

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Abstract
We report genome-wide data for 33 Ashkenazi Jews (AJ), dated to the 14th century, following a salvage excavation at the medieval Jewish cemetery of Erfurt, Germany. The Erfurt individuals are genetically similar to modern AJ and have substantial Southern European ancestry, but they show more variability in Eastern European-related ancestry than modern AJ. A third of the Erfurt individuals carried the same nearly-AJ-specific mitochondrial haplogroup and eight carried pathogenic variants known to affect AJ today. These observations, together with high levels of runs of homozygosity, suggest that the Erfurt community had already experienced the major reduction in size that affected modern AJ. However, the Erfurt bottleneck was more severe, implying substructure in medieval AJ. Together, our results suggest that the AJ founder event and the acquisition of the main sources of ancestry pre-dated the 14th century and highlight late medieval genetic heterogeneity no longer present in modern AJ.




Discussion


We have presented the first genome-wide data from historical AJ individuals. We used the data to refine the picture of early AJ origins. The ancestry of EAJ was closely related to that of modern AJ, as evidenced by the PCA, ADMIXTURE, and qpWave analyses, suggesting overall genetic continuity of AJ over the past ≈700 years. However, EAJ individuals had more variable ancestry than MAJ and were possibly stratified by the presence of a minor Eastern European ancestry component. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the EAJ population had already experienced a “bottleneck” shared with MAJ: the high frequency of Ashkenazi founder mtDNA haplogroups; and the presence of Ashkenazi-specific pathogenic variants, other AJ-enriched alleles, and long runs of homozygosity. Carriers of the K1a1b1a mtDNA founder haplogroup seem to have descended from an even smaller set of founders. In agreement with previous studies [19, 23, 25], we date the onset of the expansion in AJ population size to about 20-25 generations ago (see additional discussion in SI 2). Our ancient DNA data allowed us to identify patterns in the history of AJ that would not have been otherwise detectable from modern genetic variation. Specifically, our genetic results suggest that the AJ population was structured during the Middle Ages. Within Erfurt, one group of individuals had an enrichment of Eastern European-related ancestry (Figure 1 and Figure 2B), while the other had ancestry very close to that of MAJ of Western European origin and modern Sephardi Jews (Figure 1 and Figure S10). The two groups also had significantly different levels of enamel δ18O (Figure 2C). Medieval AJ may have been structured even beyond Erfurt, based on our inferred demographic model (Figure 3E). In contrast, present-day AJ is a remarkably homogeneous population [17, 23, 33]. This suggests that even though the available under aCC-BY-NC 4.0 International license.was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made bioRxiv preprint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.05.13.491805; this version posted May 16, 2022. The copyright holder for this preprint (which18 overall sources of ancestry remained very similar between medieval and modern AJ, endogamy and within-AJ mixture since medieval times have contributed to the homogenization of the AJ gene pool. We found that a plausible model for the ancestral sources of EAJ (Figure 2A) include groups related to people in South-Italy (about 70%, who themselves plausibly might harbor Middle East-related ancestry), the Middle East (about 15%), and Eastern Europe (about 15%). Models with North-Italians as a source were also plausible, with an ancestry proportion of about 45% to each of North-Italians and Middle Easterners. The ancestry proportion estimates using North-Italians are closer to previous estimates using modern SNP and sequencing data [19, 35], but a North-Italian source was less favored by qpAdm (Table S7). While these results could be consistent with a model where the Middle Eastern ancestry in AJ has not been as large as previously thought, complicating the picture are (i) our inability to identify a satisfactory model for modern AJ; (ii) the historically variable levels of Middle Eastern ancestry in Italy [49, 88-90] (SI 2); and (iii) the possible problems when modeling an ancient population with modern sources using qpAdm [50] (although see our robustness tests in Table S7). Therefore, the direct contribution of ME sources to AJ ancestry may be higher than estimated (SI 2). Either way, the substantial Southern European ancestry we inferred adds weight to the evidence that early AJ descended, at least partly, from Italian Jews (SI 2). The estimate of about 15% Eastern European-related ancestry is consistent with a previous study [35]. The identification of this source as Eastern European relies on the f4 results (figs. S13, S14) and the qpAdm models (Table S7); however, this ancestry might derive from a broad area across Central or Eastern Europe, which may accord with recorded migration into Erfurt from Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia (SI 1). For an additional discussion on the historical interpretation of these results, see SI 2. As with other ancient DNA studies, our historical inferences are based on a single site in time and space. This implies that our data may not be representative of the full genetic diversity of early AJ, as we have indeed inferred (Figure 3E). However, even for a single site, our sample size was relatively large (>30), and we were able to capture substructure not present in MAJ. Another limitation is the reliance of our demographic models on a relatively small number of runs of homozygosity, which are difficult to infer from pseudo-haploid data. In particular, several models were disqualified due to mismatch with observed counts of short ROH or IBD segments, which are difficult to accurately call (Figure 3D; Figure S25). Our inferred demographic model (Figure 3E) should not be interpreted as a complete and precise demographic reconstruction; rather, it should be viewed as a simplified model (perhaps one among many) that captures the main features of the observed genetic data. Similarly, our models for the ancestry of EAJ (Figure 2A) may not be the only plausible models, and the ancestral sources we inferred should be interpreted as proxies, distant in time and space, of the true ancestral population

 
Their Slavic admixture is perhaps roughly from the same region as Erfurt, not from further East:

PBXCRqO.png



^^^
Let's remind about the genetics of 14th century inhabitants of Krakauer Berg:


Code:
14th_century_DEU_MA_Krakauer_Berg(n=3),0.1320347,0.1272797,0.077561,0.06783,0.0444187,0.0252863,0.006267,0.0107687,0.002182,-0.020714,-0.0039513,-0.009242,0.016006,0.0173403,-0.007917,0.0017677,0.0068233,-0.0025337,0.0055307,0.0007917,-0.0053657,-0.0007007,0.0023007,-0.0088363,-0.0013573


North Europe PCA: https://vahaduo.github.io/g25views/#NorthEurope


uQC0Oy4.png


^^^
Average result of three of Krakauer Berg individuals dated to the 14th century:

9OHmTCt.png


Code:
14th_century_DEU_MA_Krakauer_Berg_KRA004,0.134311,0.126941,0.089,0.07752,0.050779,0.029284,0.00094,0.00923,0.004909,-0.016401,0.001949,-0.008842,0.020664,0.019818,-0.006515,0.005701,0.00665,0.0019,0.00817,0.007128,-0.010731,-0.000989,0.003451,-0.014942,-0.003712
14th_century_DEU_MA_Krakauer_Berg_KRA008,0.132035,0.129988,0.078064,0.066215,0.037853,0.018965,0.005405,0.009923,0.001432,-0.021868,-0.006496,-0.008243,0.015758,0.011147,-0.011536,0.009944,0.020861,-0.00228,0.002514,0.003126,-0.004617,0.000124,0.000493,-0.005663,0.001676
14th_century_DEU_MA_Krakauer_Berg_KRA010,0.129758,0.12491,0.065619,0.059755,0.044624,0.02761,0.012456,0.013153,0.000205,-0.023873,-0.007307,-0.010641,0.011596,0.021056,-0.0057,-0.010342,-0.007041,-0.007221,0.005908,-0.007879,-0.000749,-0.001237,0.002958,-0.005904,-0.002036

Of course older individuals were also Slavic:

Code:
DEU_MA_Krakauer_Berg:KRA001,0.129758,0.122879,0.07203,0.068476,0.044316,0.025937,0.012221,0.013615,-0.005727,-0.024602,-0.002761,-0.007943,0.011447,0.018441,-0.014251,0.011403,0.021383,-0.005954,0.003645,0.002126,0.000873,-0.009398,0.009244,-0.005784,-0.000479
DEU_MA_Krakauer_Berg:KRA002,0.125205,0.129988,0.073539,0.065246,0.034468,0.022311,0.00846,0.013615,-0.001636,-0.021868,-0.003085,-0.013638,0.012339,0.012248,-0.000271,0.011005,0.004303,-0.004181,0.002891,0.001876,-0.00549,-0.007543,0.002095,-0.000843,-0.005269
DEU_MA_Krakauer_Berg:KRA003,0.127482,0.123895,0.077687,0.065246,0.044624,0.010598,0.01081,0.017307,0.00225,-0.022233,-0.001137,-0.007943,0.017542,0.008808,-0.002172,0.023336,0.019427,0.00266,0.001131,0.006503,-0.006863,-0.004081,0.007148,0.006627,-0.000239
DEU_MA_Krakauer_Berg:KRA005,0.127482,0.13405,0.069013,0.068799,0.049548,0.021753,0.009635,0.015461,-0.006545,-0.021139,-0.004709,-0.009442,0.010406,0.02257,-0.006515,-0.004508,0.009909,-0.001774,0.006411,0.006753,-0.008235,-0.002968,0.006655,-0.00482,0.000239
DEU_MA_Krakauer_Berg:KRA006,0.129758,0.120848,0.065242,0.061047,0.043085,0.022869,0.00564,0.012923,-0.001432,-0.020228,-0.000487,-0.010041,0.013379,0.024772,-0.011808,-0.012198,-0.00339,-0.004814,-0.000503,-0.004752,0.001248,0.000247,0.007148,-0.010845,0.002395
DEU_MA_Krakauer_Berg:KRA007,0.125205,0.131003,0.082212,0.067184,0.047701,0.02761,0.00846,0.011538,-0.000205,-0.035718,0.001949,-0.006594,0.01888,0.02202,-0.009365,-0.01485,-0.002868,0.000887,-0.003017,0.005503,0.000749,0.000989,0.00037,-0.003976,0.007664
DEU_MA_Krakauer_Berg:KRA009,0.129758,0.129988,0.064111,0.064923,0.039392,0.021196,0.00893,0.011307,0.000205,-0.028793,-0.003085,-0.009891,0.017988,0.023258,-0.010722,0.006629,0.007693,0.00114,0.004651,0.00988,-0.01123,0.000495,0.003944,-0.008796,-0.001197
DEU_MA_Krakauer_Berg:KRA011,0.130897,0.132019,0.082212,0.069768,0.050163,0.026216,0.012926,0.009923,0.002454,-0.019135,-0.002111,-0.008692,0.014717,0.023533,-0.012486,-0.011005,-0.004172,0.002154,0.006034,0.006003,-0.006738,-0.01014,0.007395,-0.004217,0.003592
 
Oops, seems I missed the thread was already started, and I double posted it.
 
fjeSedl.png


Yppg1Vb.png


Seems the southern European admixture is South Italian like, as some speculated after the Rome papers and the implied Jewish communities within Rome falling on the East-Med cline.
 
I suppose that many of the Slavs living in this region were still Pagan or "Crypto-Pagan" even as late as the 14th century. And it was easier to convert to Judaism a Pagan or a "Crypto-Pagan", than a staunch Christian (which the Germans were). Mixing between Pagans and Jews was more likely than between Christians and Jews. Especially that both groups were persecuted by Christians (Germans in this case).
 
Pagans did not accuse the Jews of killing their Christ - so there was no prejudice (unless the Jews were prejudiced against Pagans?).

And as you know the last Pagan Slavs were in Germany. Poland became Christian much earlier than Sorbs & other Slavs in Germany.
 
Pagans did not accuse the Jews of killing their Christ - so there was no prejudice (unless the Jews were prejudiced against Pagans?).

And as you know the last Pagan Slavs were in Germany. Poland became Christian much earlier than Sorbs & other Slavs in Germany.

I am not sure if this is relevant though. But may be who knows.
As for Poland and Christendom, I believe your statement is correct. Except for what is today Northern Poland which from what I know was some of the last parts of Europe to give up the Pagan religion/s under the Teutonic Order.
 
Last Slavic Pagans lost independence ca. year 1200, but obviously they continued as "Crypto-Pagans" and resisted Christianization much longer (just like Jews in Spain remained "Crypto-Jews"):


^^^ I recommend book "The Northern Crusades" (2nd Edition) by Eric Christiansen. The 1st Edition is available for free online, here:

https://archive.org/details/northerncrusades0000chri_x2u2/page/n3/mode/2up
 
Yep. Quite a fascinating region which I have spent some time reading on. Thanks for the free book :)
 
Being a Christian you recognize that Jesus is the son of God.

Converting to Judaism by a Christian would be a step backwards in the sense that you need to renounce (to betray) Jesus. For a Pagan (or a Crypto-Pagan Slav, who had been forcibly Christianized by crusaders, but is not a sincere Christian believer) such a dilemma does not exist.
 
mtdna and y haplogroups in this study

i13861- female- k1a1b1a

i13862- male- T1a1a/ k1a1b1a

i3863- female- k1a9

i3864- male - h3p / j2a1a1a2b2 -

i13865- male -L2a1I2a / R1b1a1b1b

i13866-male - k1a1b1a / j1a

i13867- female- k1a1b1a

i13868- male- H1as2 / R1b1a1b1a1a2b3a

i13869-female- h11b1

i13870- male - k1a1b1a / j2a1a1a2b2a

i14736- female -k1a1b1a

i14737-female -N1b1b1

i14738- female- u3a1a

i14739- female - H5c2

I14740- female- N9a3

i14741- female- k1a1b1a

i14846- male- k1a1b1a / j(x j2b)

i14847- male - h1aj1a / E1b1b1b2(x e1b1b1b2b)

i14848- male ( second degree relative of i14855 )- k1a9

i14849- female- h1c1

i14850-female - ( a mother of i14853 and i14898 )- u1b1

i14851- female-k1a1b1a

i14852-female-h6a1a1a

i14853 - male -( a son of i14850 and brother of i14898) -u1b1 / R1b1a1b1b

i14854- female -( second degree relative of i14855)- u5a1a2a

i14855-male-(second degree relative of i14854) u5a1a2a

i14897- female-j1c1

i14898-female ( a daughter of i14850) -u1b1

i14899-male - k1a1b1a

i14900-male -u5a2b2a

i14901-female-hv1b2

i14903-female-k1a1b1a

i14904-male-( father of i13869) t1a1b / R1b1a1b1b
 
mtdna and y haplogroups in this study

i13861- female- k1a1b1a

i13862- male- T1a1a/ k1a1b1a

i3863- female- k1a9

i3864- male - h3p / j2a1a1a2b2 -

i13865- male -L2a1I2a / R1b1a1b1b

i13866-male - k1a1b1a / j1a

i13867- female- k1a1b1a

i13868- male- H1as2 / R1b1a1b1a1a2b3a

i13869-female- h11b1

i13870- male - k1a1b1a / j2a1a1a2b2a

i14736- female -k1a1b1a

i14737-female -N1b1b1

i14738- female- u3a1a

i14739- female - H5c2

I14740- female- N9a3

i14741- female- k1a1b1a

i14846- male- k1a1b1a / j(x j2b)

i14847- male - h1aj1a / E1b1b1b2(x e1b1b1b2b)

i14848- male ( second degree relative of i14855 )- k1a9

i14849- female- h1c1

i14850-female - ( a mother of i14853 and i14898 )- u1b1

i14851- female-k1a1b1a

i14852-female-h6a1a1a

i14853 - male -( a son of i14850 and brother of i14898) -u1b1 / R1b1a1b1b

i14854- female -( second degree relative of i14855)- u5a1a2a

i14855-male-(second degree relative of i14854) u5a1a2a

i14897- female-j1c1

i14898-female ( a daughter of i14850) -u1b1

i14899-male - k1a1b1a

i14900-male -u5a2b2a

i14901-female-hv1b2

i14903-female-k1a1b1a

i14904-male-( father of i13869) t1a1b / R1b1a1b1b

Why so many males with no reported Y-DNA ???
 
Why so many males with no reported Y-DNA ???



table s2:

yes i know about the males you are talking about what can i do:LOL:
that is what written
next to them in the table :

n/a ( too few SNPs)
 
Would be quite convincing if the J2b's are the Kohanim branch similar to the Roman paper J2b that had an East Med shift.
Would help shed light where that particular Kohanim branch got incorporated.
 
Lots of R1b males, what's up with that?
 
mtdna and y haplogroups in this study

i13861- female- k1a1b1a

i13862- male- T1a1a/ k1a1b1a

i3863- female- k1a9

i3864- male - h3p / j2a1a1a2b2 -

i13865- male -L2a1I2a / R1b1a1b1b

i13866-male - k1a1b1a / j1a

i13867- female- k1a1b1a

i13868- male- H1as2 / R1b1a1b1a1a2b3a

i13869-female- h11b1

i13870- male - k1a1b1a / j2a1a1a2b2a

i14736- female -k1a1b1a

i14737-female -N1b1b1

i14738- female- u3a1a

i14739- female - H5c2

I14740- female- N9a3

i14741- female- k1a1b1a

i14846- male- k1a1b1a / j(x j2b)

i14847- male - h1aj1a / E1b1b1b2(x e1b1b1b2b)

i14848- male ( second degree relative of i14855 )- k1a9

i14849- female- h1c1

i14850-female - ( a mother of i14853 and i14898 )- u1b1

i14851- female-k1a1b1a

i14852-female-h6a1a1a

i14853 - male -( a son of i14850 and brother of i14898) -u1b1 / R1b1a1b1b

i14854- female -( second degree relative of i14855)- u5a1a2a

i14855-male-(second degree relative of i14854) u5a1a2a

i14897- female-j1c1

i14898-female ( a daughter of i14850) -u1b1

i14899-male - k1a1b1a

i14900-male -u5a2b2a

i14901-female-hv1b2

i14903-female-k1a1b1a

i14904-male-( father of i13869) t1a1b / R1b1a1b1b


there is no K1a1b1a ydna that I can find on the net ..............have you placed this backwards?

i13862- male- T1a1a/ k1a1b1a
 
there is no K1a1b1a ydna that I can find on the net ..............have you placed this backwards?
i13862- male- T1a1a/ k1a1b1a


yes,
i was confused with him
i put the mtdna first and the y dna second in all the rest of them

this dude is indeed y dna T
 
Lots of R1b males, what's up with that?

I have not vetted it yet, but this comment on my blog comes to mind:
According to the website https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/r-1b/about/results,extensive research has been done on the R1 haplogroup and it’s subclades. The Y haplogroup R1b (M343) appeared around 12,000 years ago in the Middle East, most likely somewhere in the Levant (today Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan) the same location from which the Sumerians and ancient HEBREWS and Jewish nation originated. These ancient forefathers were among those who developed farming in the area (but many other men of different haplogroups were also taking part.
Than 8000 BCE R1b-M269 (old R1b1a2) the following subgroup of R1b originates most likely in East Europe or West Asia around (6500-8500 years with confidence). In its M269* (M269+ L23-) form, it is found rarely around the Mediterranean, Anatolia, the Balkans. Amongst this class is a cluster of Jewish R1b-M269*. “Ht35” which is short for Haplotype 35, the original academic label for Eastern European and Asian R1b subgroups. So the first mention of a jewish connection to the R1b subgroups originates 8500 BCE,
https://www.rhesusnegative.net/stay...-jewish-rh-negative-connection/#comment-26149
 

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