Bahamian Y-chromosome Signatures

A. Tamar Chabadi

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Washington DC
Ethnic group
Father's side: Jewish, Kurdish, Syrian----Mother's side: German/ Irish and Scottish
AJPA DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.21616

Paternal lineages signal distinct genetic contributions from British Loyalists and continental Africans among different Bahamian islands

Tanya M. Simms et al.

Over the past 500 years, the Bahamas has been influenced by a wide array of settlers, some of whom have left marked genetic imprints throughout the archipelago. To assess the extent of each group's genetic contributions, high-resolution Y-chromosome analyses were performed, for the first time, to delineate the patriarchal ancestry of six islands in the Northwest (Abaco and Grand Bahama) and Central (Eleuthera, Exuma, Long Island, and New Providence) Bahamas and their genetic relationships with previously published reference populations. Our results reveal genetic signals emanating primarily from African and European sources, with the predominantly sub-Saharan African and Western European haplogroups E1b1a-M2 and R1b1b1-M269, respectively, accounting for greater than 75% of all Bahamian patrilineages. Surprisingly, we observe notable discrepancies among the six Bahamian populations in their distribution of these lineages, with E1b1a-M2 predominating Y-chromosomes in the collections from Abaco, Exuma, Eleuthera, Grand Bahama, and New Providence, whereas R1b1b1-M269 is found at elevated levels in the Long Island population. Substantial Y-STR haplotype variation within sub-haplogroups E1b1a7a-U174 and E1b1ba8-U175 (greater than any continental African collection) is also noted, possibly indicating genetic influences from a variety of West and Central African groups. Furthermore, differential European genetic contributions in each island (with the exception of Exuma) reflect settlement patterns of the British Loyalists subsequent to the American Revolution.
The Haplogroups typically associated with Sub-Saharan Africa are much in evidence... A1b-V164 (associated with the Bakola Pygmies), B-M60* B1-M236* B1a-M146 B2a1-M218* B2a1a-M109 (mostly associated with Pygmies, Nilo-Saharans, and Khoisan), DE-YAP* (a very rare, but known to exist, deep-clade mostly found in Nigeria), E1a* E1a2 (West African/ most frequent in Mali), E1b1a-M2* E1b1a1-M58 E1b1a7-M198* E1b1a7a-U174* E1b1a7a3-P116* E1b1a8-U175* E1b1a8a-P278* E1b1a8a1-U290* E1b1a8a1a-U181 E1b1a8a2-P59 (are all very heavily associated with Bantu populations all over Africa/ overwhelmingly the most frequent signature of Sub-Saharan origin in the Bahamas as well as most people of Sub-Saharan origin in the Western Hemisphere/ the most frequent clades overall in the Bahamas E-M2*, U174*, and U290), and E2b-M98* E2ba-M85* E2ba1-M200 (mostly associated with the range of Bantu speakers)

The European Y-Haplogroups are typical of Northern, Western, and Eastern Europe...I1-M253* (Scandinavia and Northwestern Europe/ third most frequent European clade in the Bahamas) I2-P215* (POSSIBLY the new I2c or b...low frequencies in the South Caucasus and Anatolia, the new I2b is mostly, if not, entirely confined to Italy) I2b-M223* (The new I2a2a, Germany and Eastern Sweden) I2b1-M284 (The new I2a2a1, Bristish/ likely Anglo-Saxon/ derived from I2b-M223/ the new I2a2a-M223*) ...R1b1b1a1a-M405/ U106* (Western European/ most frequent in the Netherlands/ second most frequent European clade in the Bahamas) R1b1b1a1a1-M467/ U198* (Western European/ derived from R1b-U106*) R1b1b1a1b-S116/ P312* (Western European/ originating in the Rhine Basin) R1b1b1a1b1a-U152 (Central Europe/ Italo-Celto-Germanic/ derived from R1b-S116/ P312*) R1b1b1a1b2-L21/ M529* (English and Irish/ the most frequent European Clade in the Bahamas) R1b1b1a1b2a-M222 (Irish/ derived from R1b-L21/ M529*) R1b1b1a1b5-M167 (Iberian)...R1a1a-M198* (Northern European/ Eastern European)

The "Mediterranean" Clades also make an appearance...E1b1b1(xE1b1b1f)-M35* (Northeast African/ Afro Asiatic) E1b1b1a-M78 (Northeast African/ Afro-Asiatic, Greece, Balkans) E1b1b1c-M123/M34 (Middle Eastern/ Horn of Africa)...G2-P15* (Middle Eastern/ West Asian)...J1e-P58 (Middle Eastern/ Arabian/ Most frequent Mediterranean clade in the Bahamas)...J2a-M410 (Pan-Mediterranean/ most frequent in Northeast Caucasians)...Q1b/ now known as Q1b1-M378 (it is widely distributed in Europe, South Asia, and West Asia. It is found among samples of Hazaras and Sindhis. It is also found in the Uyghurs of North-Western China in two separate groups. The Q-M378 subclade and specifically its Q-L245 subbranch is speculated to be the branch to which Q-M242 men in Jewish Diaspora populations belong. Although published articles have not tested for M378 in Jewish populations, genetic genealogists from the Ashkenazi, Mizrachi, and Sephardi Jewish populations have tested positive for both M378 and L245.)...R1b2/ now known as R1b1c-V88 (most frequent in Afro-Asiatic Chadic speakers), R1b1b1a1/ haplotype 35-Armenian Modal Haplogroup-L23 (xL150)* (R-L23*, it is "instructive" that this clade is often more than 10% of the population in the Caucasus, Turkey, and some southeast European and circum-Uralic populations. In Western Europe it is also present but in generally much lower levels apart from "an instance of 27% in Switzerland's Upper Rhone Valley"/ West Asian/ should be Haplotype 15 is the overwhelmingly dominant Western European clade...Haplotye 35 is the West Asian variety)...T-M184* (found in an insignificant majority of Kurru, Bauris & Lodha in South Asia; and in a significant minority of Rajus and Mahli in South Asia, Somalis, southern Egyptians and Fulbe in Africa, Chian Greeks, Saccensi/Sicilians, Eivissencs / Ibizans and Northeastern Portuguese Jews in Europe, Zoroastrians, Bakhtiaris in the Middle East/ in the Bahamas, Y-Haplogroup T is most frequent on Long Island at nearly 7%, overall, in the Bahamas it is less than 1%/ Thomas Jefferson belongs to Y-Haplogroup T1a-L162*)
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