Genetic study Ancient DNA of Roman Danubian Frontier and Slavic Migrations (Olalde 2021)

Maciamo

Veteran member
Admin
Messages
10,090
Reaction score
3,525
Points
113
Location
Lothier
Ethnic group
Italo-celto-germanic
Here is the preprint of the new Reich lab paper Cosmopolitanism at the Roman Danubian Frontier, Slavic Migrations, and the Genomic Formation of Modern Balkan Peoples

I have summarised the Y-DNA and mtDNA on this table.

IDLocationDateY-DNAmtDNA
I15527Viminacium, Pecine Necropolis70-208 cal CER1b-U106H30b1
I15528Viminacium, Pecine Necropolis..T1a1n
I15529Viminacium, Pecine NecropolisJ1,J-Z2215,J-Z2217,J-CTS1026,J-Z1828,J-Z18463,J-Z18471,J-BY94H11a2
I15530Viminacium, Pecine Necropolis..K1a2a
I15531Viminacium, Pecine Necropolis258-413 cal CEI1H10a1
I15532Viminacium, Pecine NecropolisT-L206,T-M70,T-L131J2b1c
I15533Viminacium, Pecine Necropolis246-365 cal CER1a-M417,R-Z645V1a1
I15534Viminacium, Pecine Necropolis..H5
I15535Viminacium, Pecine Necropolis..H1b
I15536Viminacium, Pecine Necropolis..U5a1j
I15486Viminacium, Pirivoj Necropolis..T2
I15490Viminacium, Pirivoj NecropolisE-V13,E-Z1057,E-CTS1273H6b
I15491Viminacium, Pirivoj NecropolisH7
I15492Viminacium, Pirivoj NecropolisR1b-U152,R-L2,R-Z258,R-Z367,R-L20H7
I15493Viminacium, Pirivoj Necropolis..H8c
I15494Viminacium, Pirivoj Necropolis..H5a2
I15495Viminacium, Pirivoj NecropolisE-V13,E-Z1057,E-CTS1273,E-BY3880,E-Z5017,E-Z5016,E-Y3762,E-CTS6377,E-CTS9320H49
I15498Viminacium, Pirivoj NecropolisH36
I15499Viminacium, Pirivoj Necropolis80-215 cal CEE-M78,E-Z1902,E-V12,E-Y2863,E-FGC14377,E-FGC14378,E-V32L2a1j
I15501Viminacium, Pirivoj Necropolis..J1c1
I15502Viminacium, Pirivoj NecropolisE-Z830,E-PF1962,E-M123U3a2a1
I15509Viminacium, Pirivoj Necropolis..I4b
I15510Viminacium, Pirivoj NecropolisG-PF3148H26a1
I15511Viminacium, Pirivoj Necropolis..H
I15512Viminacium, Pirivoj Necropolis..X2+225
I15514Viminacium, Pirivoj Necropolis..U4a2a
I15515Viminacium, Pirivoj NecropolisR1b-Z2103K1a3a
I15516Viminacium, Pirivoj NecropolisG-P303H13a1a1
I15517Viminacium, Pirivoj Necropolis124-228 cal CEJ2a-L26,J-PF5087,J-PF5160,J-L24,J-Y22662,J-L25,J-Z438,J-Z387,J-L70HV
I15485Viminacium, Rit Necropolis..H
I15487Viminacium, Rit Necropolis..T1a
I15488Viminacium, Rit Necropolis..H41a
I15489Viminacium, Rit NecropolisG-PF3148,G-PF3177,L91,G-Z6484,G-Z6284,G-Z6128,G-Y140837,G-Y140827H
I15496Viminacium, Rit Necropolis..T2b+16362
I15497Viminacium, Rit Necropolis..J1c
I15500Viminacium, Rit Necropolis129-247 cal CE..R0a1a
I15504Viminacium, Rit NecropolisE-V13,E-Z1057,E-CTS1273,E-BY3880H47a
I15505Viminacium, Rit Necropolis..J1d1a1
I15506Viminacium, Rit Necropolis..HV9+152
I15507Viminacium, Rit NecropolisE-V13,E-Z1057,E-CTS1273,E-BY3880K1c2
I15508Viminacium, Rit Necropolis..W6
I15519Viminacium, Rit Necropolis..R0a2d
I15503Viminacium, Vise Grobalja Necropolis..U5a2c
I15513Viminacium, Vise Grobalja NecropolisE-V13,E-Z1057,E-CTS1273,E-BY3880H8c
I15518Viminacium, Vise Grobalja NecropolisE-V13,E-Z1057,E-CTS1273U2e1a1
I15520Viminacium, Vise Grobalja NecropolisR1a-M417,R-Z645U5b2b
I15521Viminacium, Vise Grobalja NecropolisG-P303H
I15522Viminacium, Vise Grobalja Necropolis..H
I15523Viminacium, Vise Grobalja Necropolis..H+152
I15524Viminacium, Vise Grobalja NecropolisI2c-L596,I-Y16649,I-Y16419HV9+152
I15525Viminacium, Vise Grobalja NecropolisE-V13,E-Z1057,E-CTS1273H13a1a1
I15526Viminacium, Vise Grobalja NecropolisE-M123,E-M34,E-Z841,E-Z849,E-CTS1727,E-L791H13a2b2
I15549Mediana259-409 cal CEI1,I-Z58,I-Z59,I-CTS8647,Z60,Z140,Z141H5b
I15550Mediana..H41a
I15544Timacum Minus, Slog Necropolis261-418 cal CEE-V13,E-Z1057,E-CTS1273,E-BY3880HV9
I15545Timacum Minus, Slog Necropolis417-538 cal CEI1,I-Z58,I-Z59,I-CTS8647,Z60,Z140,Z141H1
I15546Timacum Minus, Slog NecropolisJ2b2a-L283,J-Z622,J-Z600,J-Z585,J-Z615,J-Z597L2a1+143+16189 (16192)
I15547Timacum Minus, Slog NecropolisJ2b2a-L283H+152
I15548Timacum Minus, Slog NecropolisJ2b2a-L283,J-Z585,J-Z615,J-Z597,J-Z638,J-Z1297,J-Z8421,J-Z631,J-Z1043W+194
I15551Timacum Minus, Slog Necropolis242-375 cal CER1b-Z2103,R-Z2105T1a
I15552Timacum Minus, Slog NecropolisR1b-Z2103,R-M12149,R-Z2106,R-Z2108,R-Z2110,R-CTS7556,R-Y5592,R-CTS1450H1c
I15553Timacum Minus, Slog NecropolisE-V13,E-Z1057,E-CTS1273T2b25
I15554Timacum Minus, Slog NecropolisE-V13,E-Z1057,E-CTS1273,E-BY3880H
I15555Timacum Minus, Slog NecropolisG-P303,G-L140,G-PF3346,G-PF3345,G-CTS342,G-FGC12126X2i+@225
I15556Timacum Minus, Slog Necropolis..H10d
I15537Timacum Minus, Kuline NecropolisE-V13,E-Z1057,E-CTS1273,E-BY3880,E-Z5017,E-Z5016,E-Y3762H13a2a
I15538Timacum Minus, Kuline Necropolis892-989 cal CER1b-P312,R-D99H1e1a6
I15539Timacum Minus, Kuline NecropolisR1b-P312,R-D99H1e1a6,H1e1a6
I15540Timacum Minus, Kuline Necropolis..J1b1a1
I15541Timacum Minus, Kuline NecropolisI2a1b-L621,I-CTS10936,I-S19848,I-CTS4002,I-CTS10228,I-Y3120K1a4
I15542Timacum Minus, Kuline Necropolis897-1021 cal CEI2a1b-L621,I-CTS10936,I-S19848,I-CTS4002,I-CTS10228,I-Y3120H9a
I15543Timacum Minus, Kuline NecropolisJ2-L26,J-Z6064,J-Z6055,J-Z6057,J-Y7013,J-Y7010H1f+16093

Olalde-2021-map.png
 
thanks maciamo for sharing this important paper(y)

). A local origin is supported by a high frequency of Ychromosome lineage E-V13, which has been hypothesized to have experienced a Bronze-to-IronAge expansion in the Balkans and is found in its highest frequencies in the present-day Balkans \. We interpret this cluster as the descendants of local Balkan Iron Age populations living atViminacium, where they represented an abundant ancestry group during the Early Imperial andlater periods (~47% of sampled individuals from the 1-550 CE)


The other major cluster (44% of the samples from Viminacium between 1-250 CE) isrepresented by individuals who projected towards ancient and present-day EasternMediterranean groups in PCA (Figure 1A), close to ancient individuals from Rome duringImperial times . Their ancestry can be modelled as deriving deeply from Chalcolithic WesternAnatolian groups (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.2), and we refer to this cluster as theNear Eastern-related cluster. The same signal of arrivals individuals with Anatolian/NearEastern ancestral origins is also evident in Rome during the same period , consistent with largescale gene-flow originating from the major eastern urban centers of the Empire (such asConstantinople, Antioch, Smyrna and Alexandria). These results suggest that immigration fromthe east was a common feature across urban centers in the Roman Empire, including in borderareas and large cities/military outposts such as Viminacium. Individuals with EasternMediterranean ancestry could have high social status: 3 out of the 4 individuals buried in twosarcophagi (each containing a male-female pair) with exceptionally rich grave goods at the Ritnecropolis in Viminacium belonged to the Near Eastern-related cluster, while the remainingone belonged to the Balkans Iron Age-related cluster. This kind of burial was common in theEastern Roman settlements for aristocratic members of society 20. Individuals from this clusterwere also more likely to be inhumated in a wooden coffin rather than freely buried, which couldalso be an indication of higher social prestige.

The most remarkable outlier is male I15499, excavated at Pirivojnecropolis in Viminacium, who projects outside West Eurasian genetic diversity (Figure S7).When we incorporated African populations onto the PCA (Figure S8), he projected within thevariation of present-day East African populations and close to early Christians from NorthernSudan from 500-800 CE 21 who provide a good fit for his ancestry in qpAdm (Figure 2;Supplementary section 12.4). An Eastern African ancestral origin agrees with his uniparentalmarkers mtDNA L2a1j and Y-chromosome E1b-V32, both common in East Africa today 17,22.Archeological examination of I15499’s grave found an oil lamp depicting an eagle, the symbolof Roman legion (Figure S2C). Although lamps are a common finding in Viminacium graves 23,not many depict military iconography. We hypothesize that this male was a Roman legionary orauxiliary stationed at Viminacium. We cannot determine if he was a Roman citizen, althoughauxiliary military service for a prolonged period of time resulted in citizenship. Historicalevidence also points to African recruits being tapped to reinforce the Roman Danubian limes



p.s
the e-m123 individual I15526
is e-L791 E1B1B12A1A4 ( not e-m84 i checked the supplemental)
autosomally he belong to near east cluster
it look like the east african outlier was e-v32

I missed I15502 he could also be E-M84
since he IS E-M123 also:cool-v:
and he is defiently e-z830 derived branch :)
 
Last edited:
Just look at all those "Balkan IA" clusters, majorly E-V13, R1b-Z2103, and J2b-L283:

E-Iks7NWUAQeVJL

E-IlOorXoAYyGtZ
 
All samples from ancient Moesia ............now known as Serbia

purely thracians as Moesia was one of the 4 regions of Thracian people, others Dacia, Getae ( romania and moldova ) and Odyssian ( bulgaria )
 
thanks maciamo for sharing this important paper(y)

). A local origin is supported by a high frequency of Ychromosome lineage E-V13, which has been hypothesized to have experienced a Bronze-to-IronAge expansion in the Balkans and is found in its highest frequencies in the present-day Balkans \. We interpret this cluster as the descendants of local Balkan Iron Age populations living atViminacium, where they represented an abundant ancestry group during the Early Imperial andlater periods (~47% of sampled individuals from the 1-550 CE)


The other major cluster (44% of the samples from Viminacium between 1-250 CE) isrepresented by individuals who projected towards ancient and present-day EasternMediterranean groups in PCA (Figure 1A), close to ancient individuals from Rome duringImperial times . Their ancestry can be modelled as deriving deeply from Chalcolithic WesternAnatolian groups (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.2), and we refer to this cluster as theNear Eastern-related cluster. The same signal of arrivals individuals with Anatolian/NearEastern ancestral origins is also evident in Rome during the same period , consistent with largescale gene-flow originating from the major eastern urban centers of the Empire (such asConstantinople, Antioch, Smyrna and Alexandria). These results suggest that immigration fromthe east was a common feature across urban centers in the Roman Empire, including in borderareas and large cities/military outposts such as Viminacium. Individuals with EasternMediterranean ancestry could have high social status: 3 out of the 4 individuals buried in twosarcophagi (each containing a male-female pair) with exceptionally rich grave goods at the Ritnecropolis in Viminacium belonged to the Near Eastern-related cluster, while the remainingone belonged to the Balkans Iron Age-related cluster. This kind of burial was common in theEastern Roman settlements for aristocratic members of society 20. Individuals from this clusterwere also more likely to be inhumated in a wooden coffin rather than freely buried, which couldalso be an indication of higher social prestige.

The most remarkable outlier is male I15499, excavated at Pirivojnecropolis in Viminacium, who projects outside West Eurasian genetic diversity (Figure S7).When we incorporated African populations onto the PCA (Figure S8), he projected within thevariation of present-day East African populations and close to early Christians from NorthernSudan from 500-800 CE 21 who provide a good fit for his ancestry in qpAdm (Figure 2;Supplementary section 12.4). An Eastern African ancestral origin agrees with his uniparentalmarkers mtDNA L2a1j and Y-chromosome E1b-V32, both common in East Africa today 17,22.Archeological examination of I15499’s grave found an oil lamp depicting an eagle, the symbolof Roman legion (Figure S2C). Although lamps are a common finding in Viminacium graves 23,not many depict military iconography. We hypothesize that this male was a Roman legionary orauxiliary stationed at Viminacium. We cannot determine if he was a Roman citizen, althoughauxiliary military service for a prolonged period of time resulted in citizenship. Historicalevidence also points to African recruits being tapped to reinforce the Roman Danubian limes



p.s
the e-m123 individual
is e-L791 E1B1B12A1A4 ( not e-m84 i checked the supplemental)
autosomally he belong to near east cluster
it look like the east african outlier was e-v32





Thanks kingjohn for summing up the paper. The running gag with E-V13 is over.(y)


The exotic East African male, is Horner-like. He is E-V32 which is a dominant hp among Somalis, Eritreans etc.
 
Just look at all those "Balkan IA" clusters, majorly E-V13, R1b-Z2103, and J2b-L283:

It's not surprising considering that these samples do come from the Balkans, and the Balkan cluster are all dated prior to the Slavic migrations.
 
thanks maciamo for sharing this important paper(y)

). A local origin is supported by a high frequency of Ychromosome lineage E-V13, which has been hypothesized to have experienced a Bronze-to-IronAge expansion in the Balkans and is found in its highest frequencies in the present-day Balkans \. We interpret this cluster as the descendants of local Balkan Iron Age populations living atViminacium, where they represented an abundant ancestry group during the Early Imperial andlater periods (~47% of sampled individuals from the 1-550 CE)


The other major cluster (44% of the samples from Viminacium between 1-250 CE) isrepresented by individuals who projected towards ancient and present-day EasternMediterranean groups in PCA (Figure 1A), close to ancient individuals from Rome duringImperial times . Their ancestry can be modelled as deriving deeply from Chalcolithic WesternAnatolian groups (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.2), and we refer to this cluster as theNear Eastern-related cluster. The same signal of arrivals individuals with Anatolian/NearEastern ancestral origins is also evident in Rome during the same period , consistent with largescale gene-flow originating from the major eastern urban centers of the Empire (such asConstantinople, Antioch, Smyrna and Alexandria). These results suggest that immigration fromthe east was a common feature across urban centers in the Roman Empire, including in borderareas and large cities/military outposts such as Viminacium. Individuals with EasternMediterranean ancestry could have high social status: 3 out of the 4 individuals buried in twosarcophagi (each containing a male-female pair) with exceptionally rich grave goods at the Ritnecropolis in Viminacium belonged to the Near Eastern-related cluster, while the remainingone belonged to the Balkans Iron Age-related cluster. This kind of burial was common in theEastern Roman settlements for aristocratic members of society 20. Individuals from this clusterwere also more likely to be inhumated in a wooden coffin rather than freely buried, which couldalso be an indication of higher social prestige.

The most remarkable outlier is male I15499, excavated at Pirivojnecropolis in Viminacium, who projects outside West Eurasian genetic diversity (Figure S7).When we incorporated African populations onto the PCA (Figure S8), he projected within thevariation of present-day East African populations and close to early Christians from NorthernSudan from 500-800 CE 21 who provide a good fit for his ancestry in qpAdm (Figure 2;Supplementary section 12.4). An Eastern African ancestral origin agrees with his uniparentalmarkers mtDNA L2a1j and Y-chromosome E1b-V32, both common in East Africa today 17,22.Archeological examination of I15499’s grave found an oil lamp depicting an eagle, the symbolof Roman legion (Figure S2C). Although lamps are a common finding in Viminacium graves 23,not many depict military iconography. We hypothesize that this male was a Roman legionary orauxiliary stationed at Viminacium. We cannot determine if he was a Roman citizen, althoughauxiliary military service for a prolonged period of time resulted in citizenship. Historicalevidence also points to African recruits being tapped to reinforce the Roman Danubian limes



p.s
the e-m123 individual
is e-L791 E1B1B12A1A4 ( not e-m84 i checked the supplemental)
autosomally he belong to near east cluster
it look like the east african outlier was e-v32





The Channeled-Ware people were the world's first mass iron producers. So Channeled Ware was probably more than 80% E-V13.
 
All samples from ancient Moesia ............now known as Serbia

purely thracians as Moesia was one of the 4 regions of Thracian people, others Dacia, Getae ( romania and moldova ) and Odyssian ( bulgaria )

Definitely Moldova. When you are right you are right.


Sent from my iPhone using Eupedia Forum
 
It's not surprising considering that these samples do come from the Balkans, and the Balkan cluster are all dated prior to the Slavic migrations.

This is from your E-V13 page on Eupedia:

"There are at least three distinct sources of E-V13 in Italy.

The first would be the Bronze Age Italic tribes from Central Europe, who in all logic would have possessed at least some E-V13 lineages before they invaded the Italian peninsula. Proto-Italics would have been a predominantly R1b-U152 tribe, but also carried a minority of E-V13, G2a-L140 (L13, L1264 and Z1816 subclades) and J2a1-L70 (PF5456 and Z2177 subclades). The second would be the ancient Greeks, who heavily colonized southern Italy from the 9th century BCE until the Roman conquest in the 3rd century BCE. The third are the Goths. As a Germanic tribe they might have carried a small percentage of E-V13. But that percentage very certainly increased after spending several centuries in Central and Southeast Europe and assimilating Proto-Slavs and Balkanic people before invading Italy. The Goths settled over all the Italian peninsula. They would have brought typically Germanic lineages like I1 and R1b-U106, but also the Proto-Slavic R1a-CTS1211, which is now found uniformly in 1 to 2% of the population. Since R1a-CTS1211 is not originally Germanic, it is likely that the Goths also brought a small but noticeable percentage of assimilated lineages from the Balkans, including E-V13 and J2b1 (I2a1b-CTS10228 would have come later from the East Slavic migrations from Ukraine during the Early Middle Ages, hence its absence from Italy, apart from a few coastal areas facing the Adriatic Sea)."

I think now we have enough evidence for this to be updated and add balkan groups like Illyrians, Thracians, etc, to the list of E-V13 spreaders. Far more probable than Bronze Age Italic tribes and Goths and Greeks.
 
Are the BAM files available? If yes someone should check the subclades.
 
A comment from the paper.

Individuals from the first cluster fall on an area of the PCA delimited by the “Balkan Iron Agecline” (Figure 1A). Consistent with this, we model the ancestry of this Balkans Iron Age Clusteras predominantly deriving from Iron Age (IA) groups from nearby areas in the Balkans, with67% Aegean Bronze Age-related ancestry and the remainder Slovenia Iron Age-related ancestry(Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.1). A

another one

Excavations of Iron AgeBalkans prior to the Roman rule showed the dead where predominantly cremated 18, but thischanged in Viminacium where inhumation became common suggesting a high degree ofRomanization of the local society.
 
Authors are indirectly assuming that Roman time Viminacium population was 47% E-V13, that means that Early to Late Iron Age population there was more than ~80% E-V13 since the remaining ~40% are Eastern Mediterranean comers. And there is absolutely nothing less to assume that they were the Gava-Urnfield/Channeled-Ware people coming down from Carpathian/Beskidy mountains during Late Bronze Age to Iron Age transition.

The last example of a close relationship between the Žuto Brdo – Girla Mare and Gavafinds is demonstrated in the necropolis of Pećinein the vicinity of Kostolac (Figure 1, 1).19 The excavator D. Jacanović observed that in all undisturbed contexts (or stratigraphic units) the ŽutoBrdo – Girla Mare, Hügelgräber and Gava typicalceramic forms were found together.20 This particularly applies to the four cremated burials withincrusted and burnished pottery found togetherin same context. A similar mix was documentedin 13 pits, most probably dedicated to ritual atthis site. These instances caused some archaeologists to classify the last phase of the Žuto Brdo– Girla Mare culture in the territory of the IronGates as belonging to the period of Ha A1, whichaccording to chronology of M. Garašanin covers the transitional period between Late Bronze andEarly Iron Ages.

In favour of its end in the late 12th century BC.6Contrary to the situation with the �uto Brdo � Girla Mare culture, the Gava culture complex, identified through the presence of the channelled and burnished pottery, is in the Serbian archae-ology considered as the trigger of the transition from the Late Bronze to the Early Iron Age.

http://www.anubih.ba/godisnjak/god47/5-Aleksandar Kapuran.pdf


Where is Riverman btw?
 
This is from your E-V13 page on Eupedia:

"There are at least three distinct sources of E-V13 in Italy.

The first would be the Bronze Age Italic tribes from Central Europe, who in all logic would have possessed at least some E-V13 lineages before they invaded the Italian peninsula. Proto-Italics would have been a predominantly R1b-U152 tribe, but also carried a minority of E-V13, G2a-L140 (L13, L1264 and Z1816 subclades) and J2a1-L70 (PF5456 and Z2177 subclades). The second would be the ancient Greeks, who heavily colonized southern Italy from the 9th century BCE until the Roman conquest in the 3rd century BCE. The third are the Goths. As a Germanic tribe they might have carried a small percentage of E-V13. But that percentage very certainly increased after spending several centuries in Central and Southeast Europe and assimilating Proto-Slavs and Balkanic people before invading Italy. The Goths settled over all the Italian peninsula. They would have brought typically Germanic lineages like I1 and R1b-U106, but also the Proto-Slavic R1a-CTS1211, which is now found uniformly in 1 to 2% of the population. Since R1a-CTS1211 is not originally Germanic, it is likely that the Goths also brought a small but noticeable percentage of assimilated lineages from the Balkans, including E-V13 and J2b1 (I2a1b-CTS10228 would have come later from the East Slavic migrations from Ukraine during the Early Middle Ages, hence its absence from Italy, apart from a few coastal areas facing the Adriatic Sea)."

I think now we have enough evidence for this to be updated and add balkan groups like Illyrians, Thracians, etc, to the list of E-V13 spreaders. Far more probable than Bronze Age Italic tribes and Goths and Greeks.


I don't recall any Greeks in Italy prior to 600BC ...........corinthian greeks settled in sicily and southern Italy ..ie taranto , spartans also arrived during the pelopenesse wars

Italic tribes on the adriatic seem to be the same markers as ancient bronze-age ( and prior ) dalmatians , ie..G2a2, I2a2 and later R1b and J2b .............the E looks like ironage times in italy

Goths where already mixed with sarmatians on the black sea area for over 300 years , before going to Italy......I doubt we can claim any ydna marker for them


Pointless to refer to anything after the fall of Rome............ydna markers arrived in italy from everywhere
 
interesting is who plotting in fig A

shows republican Rome closer to Croatia, Slovenia and Spain

while Roman empire ( Imperial Rome ) shows it is closer with Anatolia and the Levant
 
interesting is who plotting in fig A

shows republican Rome closer to Croatia, Slovenia and Spain

while Roman empire ( Imperial Rome ) shows it is closer with Anatolia and the Levant

Logical


Sent from my iPhone using Eupedia Forum
 
If I’m reading correctly, two or more of the J2a haplogroup samples are L70. *update: only one of the samples is L70. That is one of my great grandfathers’ haplogroup, so it’s interesting on a personal level.

Here are models of modern Balkan populations when testing admixture types, from the supplementals. They look about like what other studies imply or have found.
C705DEAC-1251-4D0B-84C8-D3A029E62225.jpg
 
Last edited:
Nice paper!

All three J2b-L283 samples are from the archeological site of Timacum Minus, Roman period, and all three are under "Balkans IA Cluster".

One of them is more specifically J-Z631>Z1043! Some think this J2b-L283 subclade expanded with the Celts. I held this theory myself a while back, though, it wasn't my main one. We need older J-Z631 aDNA to know for sure, but this makes it unlikely, although some of its lineages could've been incorporated with Celtic expansions to the west..
 
The paper was also discussed here:

https://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/39761-Upcoming-Reich-Lab-paper-on-Viminacium-etc/page2

It's important to have the whole quote for some of these conclusions as some people still don't seem to get it; or perhaps they didn't actually read the paper:

I'll highlight so it can't be missed.

""The Roman Empire expanded through the Mediterranean shores and brought human mobility and cosmopolitanism across this inland sea to an unprecedented scale. However, if this was also common at the Empire frontiers remains undetermined. The Balkans and Danube River were of strategic importance for the Romans acting as an East-West connection and as a defense line against “barbarian” tribes. We generated genome-wide data from 70 ancient individuals from present-day Serbia dated to the first millennium CE; including Viminacium, capital of Moesia Superior province. Our analyses reveal large scale-movements from Anatolia during Imperial rule, similar to the pattern observed in Rome, and cases of individual mobility from as far as East Africa. Between ~250-500 CE, we detect gene-flow from Central/Northern Europe harboring admixtures of Iron Age steppe groups. Tenth-century CE individuals harbored NorthEastern European-related ancestry likely associated to Slavic-speakers, which contributed >20% of the ancestry of today's Balkan people.

"A key feature of the data is two parallel genetic clines running along PC1 (Fig. 1). We call the first the “Balkan Iron Age cline”, with southern Balkan populations such as Bronze Age and Iron Age Aegean groups on the right extreme closer to Near Eastern populations (larger values in PC1), northern populations such as Slovenian Iron Age groups on the left extreme closer to Central European populations (smaller values in PC1), and a Bulgarian Iron Age individual and Bronze Age and Iron Age Croatian groups taking intermediate positions but closer to the southern and northern extremes, respectively. This Iron Age cline is mirrored by the “presentday Balkan cline”, which is shifted towards the upper-left of the plot (lower values in PC1 and higher values in PC2) with respect to the Iron Age cline but maintains the same geographical pattern of southern Balkan populations such as the Greeks on the right, and northern Balkan populations such as Croatians on the left. This suggests that present-day populations are not direct descendants without admixture of Iron Age groups from the same region, and that similar demographic shaped Balkan populations from North to South over the past 2,000 years."

"Consistent with this, we model the ancestry of this Balkans Iron Age Clusteras predominantly deriving from Iron Age (IA) groups from nearby areas in the Balkans, with 67% Aegean Bronze Age-related ancestry and the remainder Slovenia Iron Age-related ancestry (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.1). A local origin is supported by a high frequency of Ychromosome lineage E-V13, which has been hypothesized to have experienced a Bronze-to-Iron Age expansion in the Balkans and is found in its highest frequencies in the present-day Balkans 17. We interpret this cluster as the descendants of local Balkan Iron Age populations living at Viminacium, where they represented an abundant ancestry group during the Early Imperial and later periods (~47% of sampled individuals from the 1-550 CE).

"The other major cluster (44% of the samples from Viminacium between 1-250 CE) is represented by individuals who projected towards ancient and present-day Eastern Mediterranean groups in PCA (Figure 1A), close to ancient individuals from Rome during Imperial times 3. Their ancestry can be modelled as deriving deeply from Chalcolithic Western Anatolian groups (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.2), and we refer to this cluster as the Near Eastern-related cluster. The same signal of arrivals individuals with Anatolian/Near Eastern ancestral origins is also evident in Rome during the same period 3, consistent with largescale gene-flow originating from the major eastern urban centers of the Empire (such as Constantinople, Antioch, Smyrna and Alexandria). These results suggest that immigration from the east was a common feature across urban centers in the Roman Empire, including in border areas and large cities/military outposts such as Viminacium. Individuals with Eastern Mediterranean ancestry could have high social status: 3 out of the 4 individuals buried in two sarcophagi (each containing a male-female pair) with exceptionally rich grave goods at the Rit necropolis in Viminacium belonged to the Near Eastern-related cluster, while the remaining one belonged to the Balkans Iron Age-related cluster. This kind of burial was common in the Eastern Roman settlements for aristocratic members of society 20. Individuals from this cluster were also more likely to be inhumated in a wooden coffin rather than freely buried, which could also be an indication of higher social prestige."
Three individuals from ~1-250 CE did not fit into the two major clusters. Two males from Viminacium could be modelled using Iron Age individuals from Northwest Europe as their only source (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.5), pointing to a Northwestern European origin also supported by the R1b-U106 paternal lineage, which was not been detected in the Balkans in earlier periods but was found at high frequencies in Germanic-speaking areas, both in ancient and present-day individuals. The most remarkable outlier is male I15499, excavated at Pirivoj necropolis in Viminacium, who projects outside West Eurasian genetic diversity (Figure S7). When we incorporated African populations onto the PCA (Figure S8), he projected within the variation of present-day East African populations and close to early Christians from Northern Sudan from 500-800 CE 21 who provide a good fit for his ancestry in qpAdm (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.4). An Eastern African ancestral origin agrees with his uniparental markers mtDNA L2a1j and Y-chromosome E1b-V32, both common in East Africa today 17,22. Archeological examination of I15499’s grave found an oil lamp depicting an eagle, the symbol of Roman legion (Figure S2C). Although lamps are a common finding in Viminacium graves 23, not many depict military iconography. We hypothesize that this male was a Roman legionary or auxiliary stationed at Viminacium. We cannot determine if he was a Roman citizen, although auxiliary military service for a prolonged period of time resulted in citizenship. Historical evidence also points to African recruits being tapped to reinforce the Roman Danubian limes 24."

"At Slog, we found one directly radiocarbon dated individual with a clear Near Eastern ancestral origin, likely from the Northern Levant (Figure 1B Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.3), as well as directly radiocarbon dated individuals belonging to the Balkans Iron Age-related cluster. This confirms that the two major ancestry clusters from 1-250 CE period co-existed at least three centuries in the Danubian limes. The legacy of Balkans Iron Age groups persists in admixed form in later groups including present-day Balkan populations (see below), whereas the Near Eastern-related ancestral legacy eventually ebbed in favor of Northern/Eastern European-related ancestry, similar to the patterns observed in the city of Rome itself 3."

"These findings support the hypothesis that such individuals were part of a cosmopolitan group comprising a large proportion of individuals in Imperial towns and cities who over time were demographically overwhelmed by populations in the countryside or by faster reproductive rates of rural or populations without as much Near Eastern influence."

"The legacy of Balkans Iron Age groups persists in admixed form in later groups including present-day Balkan populations (see below), whereas the Near Eastern-related ancestral legacy eventually ebbed in favor of Northern/Eastern European-related ancestry, similar to the patterns observed in the city of Rome itself 3. These findings support the hypothesis that such individuals were part of a cosmopolitan group comprising a large proportion of individuals in Imperial towns and cities who over time were demographically overwhelmed by populations in the countryside or by faster reproductive rates of rural or populations without as much Near Eastern influence.

"We found highly similar ancestry trajectories across time in Rome and Viminacium, with a strong Anatolian/Near Eastern influence during the Imperial period that resulted in a large portion of the analyzed individuals in both cities having Near Eastern ancestry, followed by a resurgence of local ancestry after the Empire’s decline 3. These results highlight how mobility from the Easternmost areas of the Empire was a common feature of large cities and towns from the capital city of Rome to the Danubian limes, but that demographically these populations were a veneer without long-lasting influences, suggesting either that they were greatly outnumbered by local rural populations, or that their reproductive rates were much lower than that of local rural populations, consistent with evidence that cities and towns in the Roman empire did not successfully reproduce themselves demographically and instead constantly had to be repopulated through immigration 29. In the Imperial period, genetic data suggest that a large proportion of this immigration derived from the Eastern Mediterranean highlighting the centrality of this region in the period of intense human connectivity during Imperial Rome. Conversely, the decline in the geographic scale and number of people involved in transMediterranean movements following the Empire’s decline is reflected in the fact that in later periods, Eastern Mediterranean influence largely disappeared in both the city of Rome and in the large towns of the Balkans."

(Finally, someone got it!)

We also observe new ancestry during this period at Mediana, Slog necropolis at Timacum Minus and Viminacium (mostly at Pecine and Vise Grobalja necropoli), as early as the 4thcentury CE. A cluster of 10 individuals from these necropoli is shifted in PCA from the Balkans Iron Age-related cluster toward Central/Northern European ancient and present-day populations (Figure 1B). This group which we refer to as Central/Northern European cluster, could be modeled as deriving from two main sources: ~38% related to the local Balkans Iron Age substratum (we use the Balkans Iron Age-related cluster as a proxy for this type of ancestry) and 50% Central/Northern European ancestry (we use as a proxy individuals from a roughly contemporaneous Langobard-associated cemetery in Hungary 25). To obtain a fitting model, a significant proportion of ancestry (~14%) related to contemporaneous nomadic steppe groups (proxied in our analysis by Late Sarmatians from the Eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe 26) is also needed (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.6). This is even more evident in two individuals from the Pecine necropolis in Viminacium (referred to as Steppe cluster), who could be modelled as deriving ~43% of ancestry from the Balkans Iron Age-related cluster and 57% ancestry from Late Sarmatian-related Steppe groups (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.7). Ychromosome lineages also provide evidence for gene-flow, as 5 of 7 males in the Central/Northern European and Steppe cluster belonged to two lineages not found in the Balkans earlier: haplogroup I1 with a strong Northern European distribution and haplogroup R1a-Z645, common in the Steppe during the Iron Age and early 1st millennium CE 26–28. The Roman Empire had a prolonged history of contact with Germanic tribes, whose homelands were in Northern Europe between the Rhine and Vistula rivers. During the Great Migration period groups that coalesced as the Goths moved southwards, and settled at the Black Sea north coast prior to their entry in the Roman Empire 6. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that such tribes interacted with Steppe-related nomadic populations reaching the Eastern European plateau, and incorporated their ancestry into their gene pool before moving into the Balkans. However, the occurrence and manner of this interaction needs to be clarified with a more thorough sampling of this region and time period.

"The remaining five individuals clustered in the West-Eurasian PCA (Figure 1C) on top of the “present-day Balkan genetic cline”, close to present-day Serbianspeaking individuals that we newly genotyped for this study, but this apparent similarity is a projection artifact as their ancestry could not be fitted using the same qpAdm models (Supplementary section 12.8). To understand this, we performed a PCA using present-day Germanic- and Slavic-speaking populations (Supplementary section 9; Figure S9) that we expected would be sensitive to more recent drift separating Central, Northern and Eastern European populations. The Kuline individuals are more shifted towards present-day Slavicspeaking populations as compared to individuals in the Central/Northern European cluster, agreeing with the presence of Y-chromosome lineage I2-L621 in Kuline, which is common in present-day Slavic-speaking groups and absent in earlier periods. In light of these results, we modeled the ancestry of the Kuline individuals as a mixture of 56% deriving from the local Balkan Iron Age substratum and 44% deriving from Northeastern European Iron Age groups, and obtained a good statistical fit (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.8). Our results point to a strong demographic impact of Eastern European groups in the Balkans during the Medieval period, likely associated to the arrival of Slavic-speaking populations. Yet, our results rule out a complete demographic replacement, as we observe a significant portion of local Iron Age Balkan ancestry in Kuline individuals. Interestingly, we found sex bias when modeling the X chromosome of the individuals of this necropolis (Supplementary section 12.8). Perhaps the immigrant groups were constituted by a higher number of women, who therefore impacted more greatly in the demographics of the post-Roman Balkans. However, these findings have only been observed in the Kuline individuals with North-European related ancestry (n=5), we suggest more data will be needed to obtain more evidence Slavic sex bias in the Balkans. To explore whether this Northeastern European ancestry signal persisted in present-day Balkan and Aegean populations, we attempted to model present day groups by using the same qpAdmmodel used for the Kuline individuals (Supplementary section 13). Present-day Serbs, Croats and the rest of central/northern Balkan populations yielded a similar ancestral composition as the Kuline individuals, with approximately 50% Northeastern European-related ancestry admixed with ancestry related to Iron Age native Balkan population (Figure 3), implying substantial population continuity in the region over the last 1,000 years. This ancestry signal significantly decreases in more southern groups, but it is still presents in populations from mainland Greece (~30%) and even the Aegean islands (7-20%)."

(I think we already postulated about 30% "Slavic" in Thessaly years ago in Dienekes' day.)
 

This thread has been viewed 191324 times.

Back
Top