Spanish words with corrupted meaning

Maciamo

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I am currently reading a book in Spanish and watching a few series in Spanish as well. I thought it was the perfect opportunity to analyse a bit the language as I came across words that seemed to have undergone a change of meaning from their Latin root. There are of course many words like that in French too, but here I am focusing on Spanish. Italian generally remained truer to its Latin etymology.


SpanishEtymology (from Latin unless otherwise specified)Original meaningPresent meaning
atreverseattribuire sibiattribute oneselfdare
candilcandelacandeloil lamp
cejaciliaeyelasheyebrow
cigalacicadacicadaNorway lobster
cobijocubicūlumbedroomrefuge, shelter
cobrarfrom recuperarerecuperate, recover, get backcollect, cash, get paid
corderocordus"born late"lamb
cortarcurtāreshortencut
doblegarduplicāreduplicate, doubledefeat, beat, subdue
entenderintenderehearunderstand
enterarintegrarecomplete, renovateinform, notify
entregarintegrareintegratedeliver, hand over, entrust
equivocaraequus+ vocārebe ambiguous, have more than one meaningmistake
esperarspērārehopewait
éxitoexĭtusexitsuccess
fracasarfrom the Italian fracassaresmash upfail, be unsuccessful
garfiographĭumpenhook
gordogurdussilly, foolishfat
lástimablasphemusblasphemypity, shame
lejoslaxusample, loose, laxfar (away)
llevarlevareraisecarry, take, etc.
marcharfrom the French marcherwalk, marchleave, go away
muslomuscŭlusmusclethigh
nimionimiusabundant, excessiveinsignificant
ostentarostentāreshow, displayhold, occupy
palabraparabōlacomparison, proverbword
plataplataplate, sheet of metalsilver
prenderprēndĕretakeset fire / fasten, attach
prontopromptusprompt, quicksoon
pueblopopŭluspeoplevillage
quedarquietarebe quietstay, keep
rarorarusrarestrange
rescatarrecaptareget backrescue, save, recover
rescaterecapatarereturnransom
restarrestarestaydiminish / subtract, deduct
sigilosigilussealdiscretion, silence
sucesosuccessussuccessevent, happening
tenertenereholdhave
tormentatormentaupheavalstorm


Note that esperar can also mean 'to hope', but the most common meaning is 'to wait'.

Feel free to propose more words.
 
This happened fairly commonly in all the Romance languages, but its a pretty normal process in linguistic evolution; things change over time, meanings become corrupted, although that word is putting a kind of negative spin on it. In fact the inherited vocabulary of a language is more likely to have changed or evolved in some way, either semantically or morphologically, as opposed to borrowed words that were later taken in a learned or scholarly fashion, artificially preserving the original meaning.
 

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